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      Human cytochromes P450

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          Positional cloning of the APECED gene.

          Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS 1, also called APECED) is an autosomal-recessive disorder that maps to human chromosome 21q22.3 between markers D21S49 and D21S171 by linkage studies. We have isolated a novel gene from this region, AIRE (autoimmune regulator), which encodes a protein containing motifs suggestive of a transcription factor including two zinc-finger (PHD-finger) motifs, a proline-rich region and three LXXLL motifs. Two mutations, a C-->T substitution that changes the Arg 257 (CGA) to a stop codon (TGA) and an A-->G substitution that changes the Lys 83 (AAG) to a Glu codon (GAG), were found in this novel gene in Swiss and Finnish APECED patients. The Arg257stop (R257X) is the predominant mutation in Finnish APECED patients, accounting for 10/12 alleles studied. These results indicate that this gene is responsible for the pathogenesis of APECED. The identification of the gene defective in APECED should facilitate the genetic diagnosis and potential treatment of the disease and further enhance our general understanding of the mechanisms underlying autoimmune diseases.
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            Classification of chronic hepatitis: diagnosis, grading and staging.

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              An orphan nuclear receptor activated by pregnanes defines a novel steroid signaling pathway.

              Steroid hormones exert profound effects on differentiation, development, and homeostasis in higher eukaryotes through interactions with nuclear receptors. We describe a novel orphan nuclear receptor, termed the pregnane X receptor (PXR), that is activated by naturally occurring steroids such as pregnenolone and progesterone, and synthetic glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids. PXR exists as two isoforms, PXR.1 and PXR.2, that are differentially activated by steroids. Notably, PXR.1 is efficaciously activated by pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist that induces the expression of the CYP3A family of steroid hydroxylases and modulates sterol and bile acid biosynthesis in vivo. Our results provide evidence for the existence of a novel steroid hormone signaling pathway with potential implications in the regulation of steroid hormone and sterol homeostasis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular Aspects of Medicine
                Molecular Aspects of Medicine
                Elsevier BV
                00982997
                February 1999
                February 1999
                : 20
                : 1-2
                : 1-137
                Article
                10.1016/S0098-2997(99)00005-9
                © 1999

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