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      Comparative evaluation of retrograde intrarenal surgery, antegrade ureterorenoscopy and laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in the treatment of impacted proximal ureteral stones larger than 1.5 cm


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          The aim of this article was to compare retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), antegrade ureterorenoscopy (URS), and laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (LU) for impacted proximal ureter stones larger than 1.5 cm in terms of operative data, success, complications, auxiliary treatment rates, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores.

          Material and methods

          Medical records of patients undergoing RIRS, antegrade URS, or LU were retrospectively reviewed. After exclusion criteria, 122 patients were included in advanced analyses. Patients were divided into 3 groups as RIRS (n = 43), antegrade URS (n = 38) and LU (n = 41).


          Operation time was shortest in the antegrade URS and hospitalization time was shortest in the RIRS group (p <0.001 and p <0.001, respectively). VAS scores were lowest in the RIRS group and highest in the LU group (p <0.001). Success (complete stone clearance) rates were 83.7%, 97.4%, and 97.5% in the RIRS, antegrade URS, and LU groups, respectively (p <0.001). Auxiliary treatment rates in the RIRS, antegrade URS, and LU groups were 19.1%, 2.6%, and 4.7%, respectively (p <0.001). Although there was no significant difference in terms of general complication rates, grade II complication rate (blood transfusion) was significantly higher in the antegrade URS group and grade IVb complication rate (urosepsis) was higher in the RIRS group according to the modified Clavien-Dindo classification system (p = 0.007 and p = 0.02, respectively).


          Antegrade URS or LU are more logical options than RIRS for the treatment of large impacted proximal ureter stones. Between antegrade URS or LU, antegrade URS seems to be a more reasonable option due to its less invasive nature.

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          Most cited references16

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          Classification of surgical complications: a new proposal with evaluation in a cohort of 6336 patients and results of a survey.

          Although quality assessment is gaining increasing attention, there is still no consensus on how to define and grade postoperative complications. This shortcoming hampers comparison of outcome data among different centers and therapies and over time. A classification of complications published by one of the authors in 1992 was critically re-evaluated and modified to increase its accuracy and its acceptability in the surgical community. Modifications mainly focused on the manner of reporting life-threatening and permanently disabling complications. The new grading system still mostly relies on the therapy used to treat the complication. The classification was tested in a cohort of 6336 patients who underwent elective general surgery at our institution. The reproducibility and personal judgment of the classification were evaluated through an international survey with 2 questionnaires sent to 10 surgical centers worldwide. The new ranking system significantly correlated with complexity of surgery (P < 0.0001) as well as with the length of the hospital stay (P < 0.0001). A total of 144 surgeons from 10 different centers around the world and at different levels of training returned the survey. Ninety percent of the case presentations were correctly graded. The classification was considered to be simple (92% of the respondents), reproducible (91%), logical (92%), useful (90%), and comprehensive (89%). The answers of both questionnaires were not dependent on the origin of the reply and the level of training of the surgeons. The new complication classification appears reliable and may represent a compelling tool for quality assessment in surgery in all parts of the world.
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            Changing Trends in the Treatment of Nephrolithiasis in the Real World.

            Changes in the surgical treatment of nephrolithiasis, owing to recent technical advances and innovations, have made treatments more effective and less invasive. In this retrospective, observational cohort study, we identified the changing trends in the treatment of nephrolithiasis.
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              Factors affecting infectious complications following flexible ureterorenoscopy.

              In the present study, we aimed to clarify predictive factors that may cause postoperative infectious complications after flexible ureterorenoscopy (f-URS). In a 4-year prospective study, charts of patients who underwent f-URS between January 2014 and January 2018 for renal stone(s) in a tertiary academic center were reviewed. A standardized f-URS procedure was performed for all patients. Post-operative infectious complications including fever, sepsis and septic shock were categorized into same group. Patients with and without infectious complications were compared in the terms of preoperative, operative and post operative characteristics. In total, 463 patients who did not face infectious complications and 31 patients who faced infectious complications were enrolled into the study. The mean age was significantly lower in patients who did face infectious complications (34.8 vs 44.7 years old, p < 0.001). On the other hand, presence of renal abnormality was significantly more common in patients with infectious complications (12.3% vs 35.5%, p < 0.001). The mean operation time was 65.3 min in patients with infectious complications and significantly longer when compared with patients who did not face infectious complication (47.8 min, p < 0.001). Stone-free rate was significantly higher in patients without infectious complications (85.3% vs 77.5, p = 0.009). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that longer operation time ≥ 60 min, presence of renal abnormality and age ≤ 40 years were predictive factors for infectious complications following f-URS. The present study has demonstrated that operation time ≥ 60 min, presence of renal abnormality and patients with ≤ 40 years were significantly associated with infectious complications following f-URS.

                Author and article information

                Cent European J Urol
                Cent European J Urol
                Central European Journal of Urology
                Polish Urological Association
                23 January 2021
                : 74
                : 1
                : 57-63
                [1 ]Department of Urology, Private Safa Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Urology, Haseki Traning and Research Hospital, Haseki, Turkey
                Author notes
                Corresponding author Yavuz Güler, Private Safa Hospital, Department of Urology, 9-11 Gümüş Sokak, 34000 Istanbul, Turkey. +90 505 812 0376. yavuzguler1976@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright by Polish Urological Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

                : 14 January 2020
                : 10 October 2020
                : 03 January 2021
                Original Paper



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