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      A novel mutation panel for predicting etoposide resistance in small-cell lung cancer

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          Platinum-based chemotherapy, consisting of etoposide and cisplatin (EP), has been the cornerstone of therapy for extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) for decades. Despite the marked initial sensitivity of SCLC to chemotherapy, EP regimens cannot avoid the emergence of drug resistance in clinical practice. With the rise of new chemotherapy regimens in recent years and the primary resistance or insensitivity of ES-SCLC to EP regimens, it is desirable to be able to identify patients with resistant or insensitive ES-SCLC.


          The sequencing and drug sensitivity data of SCLC cell lines were provided by The Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer Project (GDSC). The data regarding sensitivity to etoposide of 54 SCLC cell lines were analyzed, and etoposide-sensitive cell lines and etoposide-resistant cell lines were differentiated according to the IC50 values defined by the GDSC. ROC curve analysis was performed on all mutations and combinations of mutations to select the optimal panel to predict resistance to etoposide.


          ROC analysis of etoposide resistance revealed that the most significant single gene mutation indicating resistance to etoposide was CSMD3, and the accuracy of predicting resistance to etoposide proved to be the highest when there was any mutation in CSMD3/PCLO/RYR1/EPB41L3, area under the curve =0.804 (95% confidence interval: 0.679–0.930, P <0.001).


          This study found that a panel with four genes ( CSMD3, EPB41L3, PCLO, and RYR1) can accurately predict sensitivity to etoposide. These findings provide new insights into the overall treatment for patients with ES-SCLC that is resistant or insensitive to etoposide.

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          Most cited references 32

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          On the origin of cancer cells.

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            Irinotecan plus cisplatin compared with etoposide plus cisplatin for extensive small-cell lung cancer.

            Irinotecan hydrochloride, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, is effective against small-cell lung cancer. In a phase 2 study of irinotecan plus cisplatin in patients with extensive small-cell lung cancer, there was a high response rate and a promising median survival time. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, phase 3 study in which we compared irinotecan plus cisplatin with etoposide plus cisplatin in patients with extensive (metastatic) small-cell lung cancer. The planned size of the study population was 230 patients, but enrollment was terminated early because an interim analysis found a statistically significant difference in survival between the patients assigned to receive irinotecan and cisplatin and those assigned to receive etoposide and cisplatin; as a result, only 154 patients were enrolled. The median survival was 12.8 months in the irinotecan-plus-cisplatin group and 9.4 months in the etoposide-plus-cisplatin group (P=0.002 by the unadjusted log-rank test). At two years, the proportion of patients surviving was 19.5 percent in the irinotecan-plus-cisplatin group and 5.2 percent in the etoposide-plus-cisplatin group. Severe or life-threatening myelosuppression was more frequent in the etoposide-plus-cisplatin group than in the irinotecan-plus-cisplatin group, and severe or life-threatening diarrhea was more frequent in the irinotecan-plus-cisplatin group than in the etoposide-plus-cisplatin group. Irinotecan plus cisplatin is an effective treatment for metastatic small-cell lung cancer.
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              Hexokinase-mitochondria interaction mediated by Akt is required to inhibit apoptosis in the presence or absence of Bax and Bak.

              The serine/threonine kinase Akt inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c release and apoptosis induced by a variety of proapoptotic stimuli. The antiapoptotic activity of Akt is coupled, at least in part, to its effects on cellular metabolism. Here, we provide genetic evidence that Akt is required to maintain hexokinase association with mitochondria. Targeted disruption of this association impairs the ability of growth factors and Akt to inhibit cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Targeted disruption of mitochondria-hexokinase (HK) interaction or exposure to proapoptotic stimuli that promote rapid dissociation of hexokinase from mitochondria potently induce cytochrome c release and apoptosis, even in the absence of Bax and Bak. These effects are inhibited by activated Akt, but not by Bcl-2, implying that changes in outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) permeability leading to apoptosis can occur in the absence of Bax and Bak and that Akt inhibits these changes through maintenance of hexokinase association with mitochondria.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                21 June 2019
                : 13
                : 2021-2041
                [1 ] Department of Oncology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University , Guangzhou 510282, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ] Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University , Ganzhou 341000, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Peng Luo; Jian ZhangDepartment of Oncology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University , 253 Industrial Avenue, Guangzhou, Guangdong510282, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 13 925 091 863Fax +86 0 206 164 3888Email luopeng@ 123456smu.edu.cn ; smuzhangjian@ 123456163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2019 Qiu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 45, Pages: 21
                Original Research


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