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      Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease: Perspectives on the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation Trial Results

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          Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Disease management in these patients has been generally focused on glycemic control and controlling other renal and cardiac risk factors as, historically, few protective therapies have been available. The Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation ­(CREDENCE) trial of canagliflozin was the first study to demonstrate renal protection with a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor in patients with T2DM and CKD, and these results could have important implications for clinical practice. Summary: In CREDENCE, participants with T2DM and estimated glomerular filtration rate 30–<90 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio >300–5,000 mg/g who were treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker for ≥4 weeks prior to randomization at either the maximum labeled or tolerated dose were randomized to receive either canagliflozin 100 mg or placebo. Canagliflozin significantly reduced the risk of the primary composite outcome of doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage kidney disease, or renal or cardiovascular (CV) death compared with placebo (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.59–0.82; p = 0.00001). Canagliflozin also reduced the risk of secondary renal and CV outcomes. The safety profile of canagliflozin in CREDENCE was generally similar to previous studies of canagliflozin. No imbalances were observed between canagliflozin and placebo in the risk of amputation or fracture in the CREDENCE population. Key Messages: The positive renal and CV effects of canagliflozin observed in the ­CREDENCE trial could have a substantial impact on improving outcomes for patients with T2DM and CKD.

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          Author and article information

          Am J Nephrol
          American Journal of Nephrology
          S. Karger AG
          April 2020
          13 March 2020
          : 51
          : 4
          : 276-288
          aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
          bBaylor University Medical Center, Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital, Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute, Dallas, Texas, USA
          cUniversity of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
          dThe Frist Clinic, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
          Author notes
          *Matthew R. Weir, MD, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 S. Greene Street, Room N3W143, Baltimore, MD 21201 (USA), E-Mail
          506533 Am J Nephrol 2020;51:276–288
          © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 13
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