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      Single- and multiple-dose tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the dual endothelin receptor antagonist aprocitentan in healthy adult and elderly subjects

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          Abstract

          Background

          Aprocitentan is an orally active, dual endothelin (ET) receptor antagonist developed for the treatment of hypertension in which, despite available treatments, a medical need exists for drugs with a new mechanism of action.

          Subjects and methods

          In this study, the single- and multiple-dose tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics of up to 600 mg (single doses) and 100 mg once a day (qd; multiple doses) of aprocitentan were investigated in healthy male and female subjects. The effect of age on the tolerability and PK parameters was investigated at a dose of 100 mg qd.

          Results

          Aprocitentan was well tolerated across all doses. No serious adverse events (AEs) occurred. The most frequently reported AE was headache. Small increases in body weight were recorded in subjects receiving 100 mg qd. Plasma concentration–time profiles of aprocitentan were similar after single- and multiple-dose administration, and support a qd dosing regimen based on a half-life of 44 hours. After multiple doses, PK was dose proportional. Accumulation at steady state, reached by Day 8, was 3-fold. Only minor differences in exposure between healthy females and males, healthy elderly and adult subjects, and fed and fasted conditions were observed. Plasma ET-1 concentrations, reflecting ET B receptor antagonism, significantly increased with doses ≥25 mg. Time-matched analysis of electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters did not suggest drug-induced ECG effects. Exposure–response analysis indicated no QTc prolongations at plasma levels up to 10 µg/mL.

          Conclusion

          Aprocitentan was well tolerated in healthy subjects with a PK profile favorable for qd dosing.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Rates of hyperkalemia after publication of the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study.

          The Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study (RALES) demonstrated that spironolactone significantly improves outcomes in patients with severe heart failure. Use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is also indicated in these patients. However, life-threatening hyperkalemia can occur when these drugs are used together. We conducted a population-based time-series analysis to examine trends in the rate of spironolactone prescriptions and the rate of hospitalization for hyperkalemia in ambulatory patients before and after the publication of RALES. We linked prescription-claims data and hospital-admission records for more than 1.3 million adults 66 years of age or older in Ontario, Canada, for the period from 1994 through 2001. Among patients treated with ACE inhibitors who had recently been hospitalized for heart failure, the spironolactone-prescription rate was 34 per 1000 patients in 1994, and it increased immediately after the publication of RALES, to 149 per 1000 patients by late 2001 (P<0.001). The rate of hospitalization for hyperkalemia rose from 2.4 per 1000 patients in 1994 to 11.0 per 1000 patients in 2001 (P<0.001), and the associated mortality rose from 0.3 per 1000 to 2.0 per 1000 patients (P<0.001). As compared with expected numbers of events, there were 560 (95 percent confidence interval, 285 to 754) additional hyperkalemia-related hospitalizations and 73 (95 percent confidence interval, 27 to 120) additional hospital deaths during 2001 among older patients with heart failure who were treated with ACE inhibitors in Ontario. Publication of RALES was not associated with significant decreases in the rates of readmission for heart failure or death from all causes. The publication of RALES was associated with abrupt increases in the rate of prescriptions for spironolactone and in hyperkalemia-associated morbidity and mortality. Closer laboratory monitoring and more judicious use of spironolactone may reduce the occurrence of this complication. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Endothelin

            The endothelins comprise three structurally similar 21-amino acid peptides. Endothelin-1 and -2 activate two G-protein coupled receptors, ETA and ETB, with equal affinity, whereas endothelin-3 has a lower affinity for the ETA subtype. Genes encoding the peptides are present only among vertebrates. The ligand-receptor signaling pathway is a vertebrate innovation and may reflect the evolution of endothelin-1 as the most potent vasoconstrictor in the human cardiovascular system with remarkably long lasting action. Highly selective peptide ETA and ETB antagonists and ETB agonists together with radiolabeled analogs have accurately delineated endothelin pharmacology in humans and animal models, although surprisingly no ETA agonist has been discovered. ET antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) have revolutionized the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, with the next generation of antagonists exhibiting improved efficacy (macitentan). Clinical trials continue to explore new applications, particularly in renal failure and for reducing proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Translational studies suggest a potential benefit of ETB agonists in chemotherapy and neuroprotection. However, demonstrating clinical efficacy of combined inhibitors of the endothelin converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase has proved elusive. Over 28 genetic modifications have been made to the ET system in mice through global or cell-specific knockouts, knock ins, or alterations in gene expression of endothelin ligands or their target receptors. These studies have identified key roles for the endothelin isoforms and new therapeutic targets in development, fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, and cardiovascular and neuronal function. For the future, novel pharmacological strategies are emerging via small molecule epigenetic modulators, biologicals such as ETB monoclonal antibodies and the potential of signaling pathway biased agonists and antagonists.
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              Efficacy and safety of dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system: meta-analysis of randomised trials

              Objective To compare the long term efficacy and adverse events of dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with monotherapy. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, January 1990 to August 2012. Study selection Randomised controlled trials comparing dual blockers of the renin-angiotensin system with monotherapy, reporting data on either long term efficacy (≥1 year) or safety events (≥4 weeks), and with a sample size of at least 50. Analysis was stratified by trials with patients with heart failure versus patients without heart failure. Results 33 randomised controlled trials with 68 405 patients (mean age 61 years, 71% men) and mean duration of 52 weeks were included. Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system was not associated with any significant benefit for all cause mortality (relative risk 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.06) and cardiovascular mortality (0.96, 0.88 to 1.05) compared with monotherapy. Compared with monotherapy, dual therapy was associated with an 18% reduction in admissions to hospital for heart failure (0.82, 0.74 to 0.92). However, compared with monotherapy, dual therapy was associated with a 55% increase in the risk of hyperkalaemia (P<0.001), a 66% increase in the risk of hypotension (P<0.001), a 41% increase in the risk of renal failure (P=0.01), and a 27% increase in the risk of withdrawal owing to adverse events (P<0.001). Efficacy and safety results were consistent in cohorts with and without heart failure when dual therapy was compared with monotherapy except for all cause mortality, which was higher in the cohort without heart failure (P=0.04 v P=0.15), and renal failure was significantly higher in the cohort with heart failure (P<0.001 v P=0.79). Conclusion Although dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system may have seemingly beneficial effects on certain surrogate endpoints, it failed to reduce mortality and was associated with an excessive risk of adverse events such as hyperkalaemia, hypotension, and renal failure compared with monotherapy. The risk to benefit ratio argues against the use of dual therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2019
                22 March 2019
                : 13
                : 949-964
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil CH-4123, Switzerland, patricia.sidharta@ 123456idorsia.com
                [2 ]Vince and Associates Clinical Research, Overland Park, KS 66211, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Patricia N Sidharta, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Hegenheimermattweg 91, Allschwil 4123, Switzerland, Tel +41 58 844 1973, Fax +41 58 844 0966, Email patricia.sidharta@ 123456idorsia.com
                Article
                dddt-13-949
                10.2147/DDDT.S199051
                6435120
                © 2019 Sidharta et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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