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      Performance of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on eggs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

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          Abstract

          Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest with a wide geographic distribution. This pest first arrived in Brazil in 2013, and since then studies on possible control methods for it have been necessary. A possible method for the control of H. armigera is using the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of T. pretiosum on H. armigera eggs, which are known to represent suitable hosts for the development of this parasitoid species in the laboratory. Parasitism and emergence rates and the duration of the egg-to-adult period of T. pretiosum were investigated following 24- and 48-h exposures of this parasitoid to H. armigera and Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. The longevity of offspring after the 24-h exposure was studied, as well as the frequency of parasitism and emergence, host preference, and the emergence of offspring from eggs of different ages or oviposited by lepidopterans on different days. Parasitism was 14.4 and 34.9% more frequent on C. cephalonica than on H. armigera after 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively. In C. cephalonica, parasitism was 27.2% higher after 48 h. Parasitism was more frequent on C. cephalonica eggs collected on the second day of oviposition (76.2%), and on H. armigera on the third day of oviposition (71.1%). Parasitism frequency was lower on 2-day-old C. cephalonica eggs (63.3%) and on 3-day-old H. armigera eggs (41.3%). When tested with a chance of choice between hosts, T. pretiosum preferred H. armigera, while in the test with no chance of choice there was no difference in preference. Thus, T. pretiosum may be considered a tool for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of H. armigera.

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          The Ecology of Heliothis Species in Relation to Agroecosystems

          G Fitt (1989)
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            A Brave New World for an Old World Pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil

            The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta) within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas.
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              Superparasitism as an adaptive strategy for insect parasitoids.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                alessandra.vacari@unifran.edu.br
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                4 February 2019
                4 February 2019
                2019
                : 9
                : 1156
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2188 478X, GRID grid.410543.7, Laboratory of Biology and Insect Rearing (LBIR), Department of Plant Protection, , São Paulo State University FCAV-Unesp, 14884-900, Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, ; Jaboticabal, São Paulo Brazil
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0722, GRID grid.11899.38, Department of Biology, , São Paulo University FFCLRP-USP, 14040-900, Avenida Bandeirantes, ; 3900 Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo Brazil
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0235 4388, GRID grid.412276.4, Animal Science Graduate Program, , University of Franca Unifran, 14404-600, Avenida Dr Armando Salles de Oliveira, 201, Parque Universitário, ; Franca, São Paulo Brazil
                Article
                37797
                10.1038/s41598-018-37797-9
                6362251
                30718578
                dc58f112-3e6a-4b23-ab8e-960006e154ef
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 18 June 2018
                : 11 December 2018
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