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      Utility of nailfold capillary assessment for predicting psoriatic arthritis based on a prospective observational cohort study

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          PsA is one of the most serious comorbidities associated with psoriasis. While the early intervention in PsA is demanded, risk factors of PsA development are not well-known. This is the first prospective study to evaluate the clinical significance of nailfold capillary (NFC) changes in patients with psoriasis.

          Methods

          We conducted a prospective cohort study in a population of 449 psoriasis patients who had not been treated with systemic therapy or topical finger therapy. NFCs were observed by dermoscopy and capillaroscopy, and the correlation of NFC abnormalities, including nailfold bleeding (NFB) and enlarged capillaries, with the prevalence of PsA, incidence of new PsA, and serum levels of TNF-a, IL-17A and IL-23 were analysed.

          Results

          Detailed examination at the time of inclusion revealed that of 449 patients, 236 had Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and 213 had PsA. Both NFB and enlarged capillaries were significantly more frequent in patients with PsA (34.7% vs 84.5%, P < 0.0001; 25.4% vs 100%, P < 0.0001). In addition, PsV patients were prospectively observed before they developed PsA (mean 21 months, 95% CI 2, 77 months). Multivariate analysis suggested that the appearance of NFB and enlarged capillaries was a predictor of PsA development (HR 2.75, 95% CI 1.38, 5.47 and HR 4.49, 95% CI 2.25, 8.96, respectively). The degree of NFC abnormalities also correlated with the severity of PsA and serum cytokine levels.

          Conclusions

          NFC abnormalities were suggested to be a predictor of PsA in psoriasis patients, and at the same time, its degree could be an indicator of disease severity.

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          Most cited references34

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          Classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis: development of new criteria from a large international study.

          To compare the accuracy of existing classification criteria for the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and to construct new criteria from observed data. Data were collected prospectively from consecutive clinic attendees with PsA and other inflammatory arthropathies. Subjects were classified by each of 7 criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were compared using conditional logistic regression analysis. Latent class analysis was used to calculate criteria accuracy in order to confirm the validity of clinical diagnosis as the gold standard definition of "case"-ness. Classification and Regression Trees methodology and logistic regression were used to identify items for new criteria, which were then constructed using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Data were collected on 588 cases and 536 controls with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 384), ankylosing spondylitis (n = 72), undifferentiated arthritis (n = 38), connective tissue disorders (n = 14), and other diseases (n = 28). The specificity of each set of criteria was high. The sensitivity of the Vasey and Espinoza method (0.97) was similar to that of the method of McGonagle et al (0.98) and greater than that of the methods of Bennett (0.44), Moll and Wright (0.91), the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (0.74), and Gladman et al (0.91). The CASPAR (ClASsification criteria for Psoriatic ARthritis) criteria consisted of established inflammatory articular disease with at least 3 points from the following features: current psoriasis (assigned a score of 2; all other features were assigned a score of 1), a history of psoriasis (unless current psoriasis was present), a family history of psoriasis (unless current psoriasis was present or there was a history of psoriasis), dactylitis, juxtaarticular new bone formation, rheumatoid factor negativity, and nail dystrophy. These criteria were more specific (0.987 versus 0.960) but less sensitive (0.914 versus 0.972) than those of Vasey and Espinoza. The CASPAR criteria are simple and highly specific but less sensitive than the Vasey and Espinoza criteria.
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            The Epidemiology of Psoriatic Arthritis.

            Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by joint and entheseal inflammation with a prevalence of 0.05% to 0.25% of the population and 6% to 41% of patients with psoriasis. PsA is a highly heterogeneous inflammatory arthritis. In this review, current knowledge is discussed regarding the epidemiology of PsA, including disease manifestations, classification criteria for adult and juvenile PsA, methods for recognizing early PsA, including use of screening tools and knowledge of risk factors for PsA, and medical comorbidities associated with PsA.
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              Enthesitis: from pathophysiology to treatment

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Rheumatology
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1462-0324
                1462-0332
                July 01 2023
                July 05 2023
                November 28 2022
                July 01 2023
                July 05 2023
                November 28 2022
                : 62
                : 7
                : 2418-2425
                Article
                10.1093/rheumatology/keac664
                dc612d85-ae33-4976-8ef7-ca097d12f35a
                © 2022

                https://academic.oup.com/pages/standard-publication-reuse-rights

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