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      Artificial Simulation of Renal Stone Formation

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          Abstract

          The effect of natural admixtures occurring in human urine (citrate, pyrophosphate and glycosaminoglycans) on the precipitation of stone-forming compounds was studied. Experiments were carried out under conditions closely simulating the early stages of renal stone formation. Among the studied admixtures, citrate was determined as the most effective substance preventing the phosphate particle formation. Indeed, in the presence of citrate, some calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals were found. Pyrophosphate induced the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals. Phosphate crystals appeared at pH 6 and never at pH 5. The easy formation of phosphate particles supports the hypothesis that these crystals represent a very important heterogeneous nucleus-initiating oxalocalcic calculus formation in the kidney. Reported results also indicated uric acid as a significant heterogeneous nucleus of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals at urinary pH equal or lower than 5 and the important role of bacteria in increasing the organic detritus deposited on the solid surfaces.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEF
          Nephron
          10.1159/issn.1660-8151
          Nephron
          S. Karger AG
          1660-8151
          2235-3186
          1993
          1993
          12 December 2008
          : 65
          : 1
          : 77-81
          Affiliations
          aDepartment of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; bInstitute of Technology, Department of Inorganic Processes, Pardubice, Czechoslovakia
          Article
          187445 Nephron 1993;65:77–81
          10.1159/000187445
          8413796
          © 1993 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 5
          Categories
          Original Paper

          Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

          Citrate, Pyrophosphate, Calcium oxalate, Glycosaminoglycans

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