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      Effects of Eleutheroside B and Eleutheroside E on activity of cytochrome P450 in rat liver microsomes


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          Chemicals of herbal products may cause unexpected toxicity or adverse effect by the potential for alteration of the activity of CYP450 when co-administered with other drugs. Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES), has been widely used as a traditional herbal medicine and popular herbal dietary supplements, and often co-administered with many other drugs. The main bioactive constituents of ES were considered to be eleutherosides including eleutheroside B (EB) and eleutheroside E (EE). This study was to investigate the effects of EB and EE on CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in rat liver microsomes in vitro.


          Probe drugs of tolbutamide (TB), dextromethorphan (DM), chlorzoxazone (CLZ) and testosterone (TS) as well as eleutherosides of different concentrations were added to incubation systems of rat liver microsomes in vitro. After incubation, validated HPLC methods were used to quantify relevant metabolites.


          The results suggested that EB and EE exhibited weak inhibition against the activity of CYP2C9 and CYP2E1, but no effects on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. The IC 50 values for EB and EE were calculated to be 193.20 μM and 188.36 μM for CYP2E1, 595.66 μM and 261.82 μM for CYP2C9, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that inhibitions of CYP2E1 by EB and EE were best fit to mixed-type with Ki value of 183.95 μM and 171.63 μM, respectively.


          These results indicate that EB and EE may inhibit the metabolism of drugs metabolized via CYP2C9 and CYP2E1, and have the potential to increase the toxicity of the drugs.

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          Species differences between mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human CYP-mediated drug metabolism, inhibition and induction.

          Animal models are commonly used in the preclinical development of new drugs to predict the metabolic behaviour of new compounds in humans. It is, however, important to realise that humans differ from animals with regards to isoform composition, expression and catalytic activities of drug-metabolising enzymes. In this review the authors describe similarities and differences in this respect among the different species, including man. This may be helpful for drug researchers to choose the most relevant animal species in which the metabolism of a compound can be studied for extrapolating the results to humans. The authors focus on CYPs, which are the main enzymes involved in numerous oxidative reactions and often play a critical role in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics. In addition, induction and inhibition of CYPs are compared among species. The authors conclude that CYP2E1 shows no large differences between species, and extrapolation between species appears to hold quite well. In contrast, the species-specific isoforms of CYP1A, -2C, -2D and -3A show appreciable interspecies differences in terms of catalytic activity and some caution should be applied when extrapolating metabolism data from animal models to humans.
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            The conduct of in vitro and in vivo drug-drug interaction studies: a Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) perspective.

            Current regulatory guidances do not address specific study designs for in vitro and in vivo drug-drug interaction studies. There is a common desire by regulatory authorities and by industry sponsors to harmonize approaches, to allow for a better assessment of the significance of findings across different studies and drugs. There is also a growing consensus for the standardization of cytochrome P450 (P450) probe substrates, inhibitors and inducers and for the development of classification systems to improve the communication of risk to health care providers and to patients. While existing guidances cover mainly P450-mediated drug interactions, the importance of other mechanisms, such as transporters, has been recognized more recently, and should also be addressed. This article was prepared by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) Drug Metabolism and Clinical Pharmacology Technical Working Groups and represents the current industry position. The intent is to define a minimal best practice for in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction studies targeted to development (not discovery support) and to define a data package that can be expected by regulatory agencies in compound registration dossiers.
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              Inhibition and induction of human cytochrome P450 enzymes: current status.

              Variability of drug metabolism, especially that of the most important phase I enzymes or cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, is an important complicating factor in many areas of pharmacology and toxicology, in drug development, preclinical toxicity studies, clinical trials, drug therapy, environmental exposures and risk assessment. These frequently enormous consequences in mind, predictive and pre-emptying measures have been a top priority in both pharmacology and toxicology. This means the development of predictive in vitro approaches. The sound prediction is always based on the firm background of basic research on the phenomena of inhibition and induction and their underlying mechanisms; consequently the description of these aspects is the purpose of this review. We cover both inhibition and induction of CYP enzymes, always keeping in mind the basic mechanisms on which to build predictive and preventive in vitro approaches. Just because validation is an essential part of any in vitro-in vivo extrapolation scenario, we cover also necessary in vivo research and findings in order to provide a proper view to justify in vitro approaches and observations.

                Author and article information

                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
                BioMed Central
                2 January 2014
                : 14
                : 1
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, China
                [2 ]Department of General Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, China
                Copyright © 2014 Guo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 16 July 2013
                : 13 December 2013
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                eleutheroside e,eleutheroside b,cytochrome p450,in vitro
                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                eleutheroside e, eleutheroside b, cytochrome p450, in vitro


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