+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Changes in use of types of tobacco products by pack sizes and price segments, prices paid and consumption following the introduction of plain packaging in Australia

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          To describe changes among smokers in use of various types of tobacco products, reported prices paid and cigarette consumption following the standardisation of tobacco packaging in Australia.


          National cross-sectional telephone surveys of adult smokers were conducted from April 2012 (6 months before transition to plain packaging (PP)) to March 2014 (15 months afterwards). Multivariable logistic regression assessed changes in products, brands and pack types/sizes; multivariable linear regression examined changes in inflation-adjusted prices paid and reported cigarette consumption between the pre-PP and three subsequent periods—the transition phase, PP year 1 and PP post-tax (post a 12.5% tax increase in December 2013).


          The proportion of current smokers using roll-your-own (RYO) products fluctuated over the study period. Proportions using value brands of factory-made (FM) cigarettes increased from pre-PP (21.4%) to PP year 1 (25.5%; p=0.002) and PP post-tax (27.8%; p<0.001). Inflation-adjusted prices paid increased in the PP year 1 and PP post-tax phases; the largest increases were among premium FM brands, the smallest among value brands. Consumption did not change in PP year 1 among daily, regular or current smokers or among smokers of brands in any market segment. Consumption among regular smokers declined significantly in PP post-tax (mean=14.0, SE=0.33) compared to PP year 1 (mean=14.8, SE=0.17; p=0.037).


          Introduction of PP was associated with an increase in use of value brands, likely due to increased numbers available and smaller increases in prices for value relative to premium brands. Reported consumption declined following the December 2013 tax increase.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 17

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy.

          Increases in tobacco taxes are widely regarded as a highly effective strategy for reducing tobacco use and its consequences. The voluminous literature on tobacco taxes is assessed, drawing heavily from seminal and recent publications reviewing the evidence on the impact of tobacco taxes on tobacco use and related outcomes, as well as that on tobacco tax administration. Well over 100 studies, including a growing number from low-income and middle-income countries, clearly demonstrate that tobacco excise taxes are a powerful tool for reducing tobacco use while at the same time providing a reliable source of government revenues. Significant increases in tobacco taxes that increase tobacco product prices encourage current tobacco users to stop using, prevent potential users from taking up tobacco use, and reduce consumption among those that continue to use, with the greatest impact on the young and the poor. Global experiences with tobacco taxation and tax administration have been used by WHO to develop a set of 'best practices' for maximising the effectiveness of tobacco taxation. Significant increases in tobacco taxes are a highly effective tobacco control strategy and lead to significant improvements in public health. The positive health impact is even greater when some of the revenues generated by tobacco tax increases are used to support tobacco control, health promotion and/or other health-related activities and programmes. In general, oppositional arguments that higher taxes will have harmful economic effects are false or overstated.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the economics of tobacco control

              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Cigarette demand: a meta-analysis of elasticities.

               Craig Gallet,  J List (2003)
              Estimating elasticities of cigarette demand has become commonplace amongst economists and policymakers. Synthesizing the various elasticities into a coherent message is quite challenging, however, as the point estimates are obtained using quite disparate modeling techniques and data. In this study, we perform a meta-analysis to explore factors that influence variations within and across studies. Empirical results suggest that demand specification, data issues, and estimation methodology have varying degrees of influence on reported estimates of price, income, and advertising elasticities. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

                Author and article information

                Tob Control
                Tob Control
                Tobacco Control
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                April 2015
                : 24
                : Suppl 2 , Implementation and evaluation of the Australian tobacco plain packaging policy
                : ii66-ii75
                Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer, Cancer Council Victoria , Melbourne, Australia
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Michelle Scollo, Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer, Cancer Council Victoria, 615 St Kilda Rd, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia; mscollo@
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

                Research Paper
                Custom metadata

                Public health

                advertising and promotion, packaging and labelling, hand-rolled/ryo tobacco


                Comment on this article