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      Impact of sleep and circadian rhythms on addiction vulnerability in adolescents

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          Abstract

          Sleep homeostasis and circadian function are important maintaining factors for optimal health and well-being. Conversely, sleep and circadian disruptions are implicated in a variety of adverse health outcomes including substance use disorders (SUDs). These risks are particularly salient during adolescence. Adolescents require 8–10 hours of sleep per night, although few consistently achieve these durations. A mismatch between developmental changes and social/environmental demands contributes to inadequate sleep. Homeostatic sleep drive takes longer to build, circadian rhythms naturally delay, and sensitivity to the phase-shifting effects of light increases, all of which lead to an evening preference (i.e., chronotype) during adolescence. On the other hand, school start times are often earlier and use of electronic devices at night increases, leading to disrupted sleep and circadian misalignment (i.e., social jet-lag). Social factors (e.g., peer influence) and school demands further impact sleep and circadian rhythms. To cope with sleepiness, many teens regularly consume highly caffeinated energy drinks and other stimulants, creating further disruptions in sleep. Chronic sleep loss and circadian misalignment enhance developmental tendencies towards increase reward sensitivity and impulsivity, increasing the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, and exacerbating the vulnerability to substance use and SUDs. We review the neurobiology of brain reward systems and the impact of sleep and circadian rhythms changes on addiction vulnerability in adolescence, and suggest areas that warrant further research.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          0213264
          1117
          Biol Psychiatry
          Biol. Psychiatry
          Biological psychiatry
          0006-3223
          1873-2402
          19 December 2017
          15 December 2017
          15 June 2018
          15 June 2019
          : 83
          : 12
          : 987-996
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA
          [2 ]Translational Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA
          [3 ]Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
          [4 ]The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME
          Author notes
          Corresponding Author: Colleen A. McClung, PhD, Associate Professor, Translational Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, 412-624-5547, mcclungca@ 123456upmc.edu
          Article
          PMC5972052 PMC5972052 5972052 nihpa928718
          10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.11.035
          5972052
          29373120
          Categories
          Article

          adolescence, addiction, reward, circuitry, circadian, sleep

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