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      Effects of Dietary Salt Load and Salt Depletion on the Course of Hypertension and Angiotensin II Levels in Male and Female Heterozygous Ren-2 Transgenic Rats

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          Background: In the present study we evaluated plasma and kidney angiotensin II (ANG II) levels in female and male Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR) in comparison to age-matched female and male normotensive Hannover Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: The rats were maintained on a normal sodium (NS) diet (0.6% NaCl) or fed a high sodium (HS) diet (2% NaCl) for 4 days or were sodium depleted by administration of 40 mg furosemide per liter drinking water overnight followed by 3 days of low sodium diet (0.01% NaCl) (LS + F). ANG II levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Results: Female TGR at the age of 38 days were already hypertensive and had developed cardiac hypertrophy, whereas male TGR at this age still exhibited a normotensive phenotype. HS diet increased the blood pressure (BP) but did not alter the ANG II levels in TGR at any age. LS + F decreased the BP without significant change in ANG II concentrations in TGR. Female TGR responded to salt loading and salt depletion by more pronounced changes in BP than male TGR. Conclusions: Female TGR develop hypertension more rapidly and the salt-sensitive component of hypertension is more pronounced in female than in male TGR.

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          A lower ratio of AT1/AT2 receptors of angiotensin II is found in female than in male spontaneously hypertensive rats.

          Sexual dimorphism has been observed in arterial hypertension. Blood pressure levels are lower in female than in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure. The aim of this study was to compare Ang II vascular reactivity and AT(1) and AT(2) receptor gene expression in female and male SHR. SHR animals were divided into four groups: (I) male, (II) female in physiological estrus, (III) ovariectomized and (IV) ovariectomized treated with estrogen. Arterial blood pressure, AT(1) and AT(2) mRNA expression were determined. Ang II responses in aorta and mesenteric vessels were also evaluated. In female SHR, aorta and mesenteric microvessels were hyporeactive to Ang II in comparison to male SHR. In ovariectomized females, Ang II vasoconstriction was similar to that of males. Estrogen treatment abolished this difference. The mRNA expression for AT(1) was higher in aorta and mesenteric vessels from males than in females. In ovariectomized SHR, mRNA expression for AT(1) was comparable to that of males. Treatment with estrogen reversed the over expression observed. Whereas AT(2) gene expression did not differ, a lower ratio AT(1)/AT(2) was found in female than in male vessels. A higher mRNA expression for AT(1) was observed in kidney from male than in female. Ovariectomy resulted in up-regulation of this subtype receptor. Treatment with estrogen reversed the overexpression. AT(2) gene expression was higher in kidney from female than male SHR. Ovariectomy reduced AT(2) gene expression and estrogen treatment reversed the alteration observed in kidney. There is sexual dimorphism in vascular reactivity and in receptor gene expression to Ang II in SHR. We conclude that estrogen modulates AT(1) and AT(2) receptor gene expression and that this might explain at least partially the lower blood pressure observed in female SHR.
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            Ovariectomy augments hypertension in aging female Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

            The ovariectomized (OVX) Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rat fed a low-salt diet is a model of postmenopausal hypertension. In addition to estrogen loss, aging can also contribute to postmenopausal hypertension. We hypothesized that: (1) female DS rats on a low-salt diet become hypertensive with age; (2) ovariectomy accelerates age-dependent hypertension in the DS rat caused by estrogen depletion; and (3) this hypertension correlates with increased type 1 angiotensin receptor (AT1R) number (Bmax). Blood pressure was monitored by telemetry from 3 to 12 months and AT1R Bmax was determined by Scatchard analysis in glomeruli and adrenal cortex. Three groups of DS rats were studied: intact, OVX, and 17beta-estradiol-replaced OVX (OVX+E). In intact rats, aging to 12 months resulted in hypertension (159+/-6 mm Hg) and an 82% decrease in estrogen. Blood pressure in OVX was significantly higher than OVX+E through 12 months of age (173+/-4 versus 150+/-8 mm Hg). At 4 months, OVX increased AT1R Bmax compared with intact and OVX+E in both glomeruli and adrenal cortex. Aging also increased AT1R Bmax in these tissues in intact rats. In summary, female DS rats fed a low-salt diet have hypertension develop with age, that is accelerated by OVX and attenuated by estrogen replacement. Concurrently, AT1Rs are upregulated by age and OVX, which is prevented by estrogen replacement. This study suggests that an increased activity of the renin angiotensin system contributes to the development of hypertension, and estrogen protects against this process.
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              Estrogen upregulates renal angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 receptors in the rat.

              We studied renal AT1 and AT2 receptors in male, female, ovariectomized and ovariectomized-estrogen-treated Wistar-Hanover and Wistar-Kyoto rats. AT1 receptors and AT1A receptor mRNA predominated, with no significant differences between males and females. AT2 receptor expression was restricted in female rats to the capsule, the transition zone between outer and inner medulla, the endothelium lining the papilla, and arcuate arteries and veins. There were no AT2 receptors in male rats, while male mice express substantial numbers of estrogen-dependent AT2 receptors. Arcuate arteries and veins expressed AT1B mRNA in males and females, and AT2 mRNA in females only. AT1 receptor and AT2 receptor expression were estrogen-dependent, with increases in AT1 and AT2 receptor expression after estrogen treatment in ovariectomized rats. Estrogen treatment increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cGMP concentrations in the renal medulla, and eNOS expression in cortical arteries. In rodents, expression of renal Angiotensin II receptor types is estrogen-dependent, with significant species, strain and area differences. Our results support an important role for AT2 receptors in the regulation of renal function and in the protective effects of estrogen in the kidney.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                February 2007
                25 January 2007
                : 30
                : 1
                : 45-55
                aDepartment of Experimental Medicine, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, bCenter for Cardiovascular Research, cDepartment of Pediatrics, Thomayer Teaching Hospital, and dDepartment of Pathology, 3rd Medical Faculty, and eDepartment of Physiology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; fDepartment of Medicine, Section of Nephrology, Medical Policlinic, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
                99028 Kidney Blood Press Res 2007;30:45–55
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 58, Pages: 11
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