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      Exercise‐Induced growth hormone during acute sleep deprivation

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          Abstract

          The effect of acute (24‐h) sleep deprivation on exercise‐induced growth hormone (GH) and insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) was examined. Ten men (20.6 ± 1.4 years) completed two randomized 24‐h sessions including a brief, high‐intensity exercise bout following either a night of sleep (SLEEP) or (24‐h) sleep deprivation (SLD). Anaerobic performance (mean power [MP], peak power [PP], minimum power [MinP], time to peak power [TTPP], fatigue index, [FI]) and total work per sprint [TWPS]) was determined from four maximal 30‐sec Wingate sprints on a cycle ergometer. Self‐reported sleep 7 days prior to each session was similar between SLEEP and SLD sessions (7.92 ± 0.33 vs. 7.98 ± 0.39 h, P =0.656, respectively) and during the actual SLEEP session in the lab, the total amount of sleep was similar to the 7 days leading up to the lab session (7.72 ± 0.14 h vs. 7.92 ± 0.33 h, respectively) ( P =0.166). No differences existed in MP, PP, MinP, TTPP, FI, TWPS, resting GH concentrations, time to reach exercise‐induced peak GH concentration (TTP), or free IGF‐1 between sessions. GH area under the curve (AUC) (825.0 ± 199.8 vs. 2212.9 ± 441.9 μg/L*min, P <0.01), exercise‐induced peak GH concentration (17.8 ± 3.7 vs. 39.6 ± 7.1 μg/L, P <0.01) and ΔGH (peak GH – resting GH) (17.2 ± 3.7 vs. 38.2 ± 7.3 μg/L, P <0.01) were significantly lower during the SLEEP versus SLD session. Our results indicate that the exercise‐induced GH response was significantly augmented in sleep‐deprived individuals.

          Abstract

          Human growth hormone release is heavily influenced by sleep and exercise. Our study shows that sleep deprivation dramatically augments the exercise‐induced human growth hormone response.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Growth hormone secretion during sleep.

          Plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin, cortisol, and glucose were measured during sleep on 38 nights in eight young adults. Blood was drawn from an indwelling catheter at 30-min intervals; EEG and electrooculogram were recorded throughout the night. In seven subjects, a plasma GH peak (13-72 mmug/ml) lasting 1.5-3.5 hr appeared with the onset of deep sleep. Smaller GH peaks (6-14 mmug/ml) occasionally appeared during subsequent deep sleep phases. Peak GH secretion was delayed if the onset of sleep was delayed. Subjects who were awakened for 2-3 hr and allowed to return to sleep exhibited another peak of GH secretion (14-46 mmug/ml). Peak GH secretion was not correlated with changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and cortisol. The effects of 6-CNS-active drugs on sleep-related GH secretion were investigated. Imipramine (50 mg) completely abolished GH peaks in two of four subjects, whereas chlorpromazine (30 mg), phenobarbital (97 mg), diphenylhydantoin (90 mg), chlordiazepoxide (20 mg), and isocarboxazid (30 mg) did not inhibit GH peaks. Altered hypothalamic activity associated with initiation of sleep results in a major peak of growth hormone secretion unrelated to hypoglycemia or changes in cortisol and insulin secretion.
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            Reductions in circulating anabolic hormones induced by sustained sleep deprivation in rats.

            The main systemic disorders resulting from prolonged sleep deprivation in laboratory animals are a negative energy balance, low circulating thyroid hormones, and host defense impairments. Low thyroid hormones previously have been found caused by altered regulation at the level of the hypothalamus with possible pituitary involvement. The present studies investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on other major anabolic hormonal systems. Plasma growth hormone (GH) concentrations and major secretory bursts were characterized. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was evaluated as an integrative marker of peripheral GH effector activity. Prolactin (PRL) was assessed by basal concentrations and by stimulating the pituitary with exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Leptin was studied for its linkage to metabolic signs of sleep loss and its correspondence to altered neuroendocrine regulation in other disease states. Last, plasma corticosterone was measured to investigate the degree of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation. Sleep deprivation was produced by the disk-over-water method, a well-established means of selective deprivation of sleep and noninterference with normal waking behaviors. Hormone concentrations were determined in sham comparisons and at intervals during baseline and experimental periods lasting at least 15 days in partially and totally sleep-deprived rats. The results indicate that high-amplitude pulses of GH were nearly abolished and that concentrations of GH, IGF-I, PRL, and leptin all were suppressed by sleep deprivation. Corticosterone concentration was relatively unaffected. Features of these results, such as low GH and low IGF-I, indicate failed negative feedback and point to hypothalamic mechanisms as containing the foci responsible for peripheral signs.
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              The effects of central adiposity on growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing hormone-arginine stimulation testing in men.

              The relative contribution of central adiposity vs. weight on GH response to stimulation testing in obesity is not known. We aimed to assess the contribution of weight and specific measures of central and peripheral adiposity to GH response to GHRH-arginine testing in lean, overweight, and obese men. A total of 75 men [mean age, 44.3+/-1.1 yr; body mass index (BMI), 28.8+/-0.7 kg/m2] were investigated. Subjects were classified as lean (BMI or=25 and or=30 kg/m2; n=24). Subjects were also stratified by waist circumference (WC) ( or=102 cm, n=28). Body composition and regional adiposity were assessed by anthropometrics, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. Peak stimulated GH was 36.4+/-5.4, 16.6+/-2.9, and 7.6+/-0.9 microg/liter among lean, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Peak stimulated GH was 26.9+/-3.4 microg/liter among subjects with WC less than 102 cm compared to 7.9+/-0.9 microg/liter among subjects with WC of 102 cm or greater (P<0.0001). Separate multivariate models using anthropometric, DEXA, and CT-derived measures of central adiposity demonstrated strong associations between peak stimulated GH and measures of central adiposity including WC, trunk fat by DEXA, and visceral adiposity by CT, controlling for age, BMI, and more general measures of adiposity. WC was independently associated with peak GH response to GHRH-arginine in a model including age, BMI, and hip circumference. In this model, BMI was no longer significant, and peak GH was reduced 1.02 microg/liter for each 1 cm increase in WC (P=0.02). GH response to GHRH-arginine testing is reduced in both overweight and obese subjects and negatively associated with indices of central abdominal obesity including WC, trunk fat, and visceral adipose tissue. The use of waist circumference, as a surrogate for central adiposity, adds predictive information to the determination of GH response, independent of BMI.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Physiol Rep
                Physiol Rep
                physreports
                phy2
                Physiological Reports
                Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
                2051-817X
                October 2014
                3 October 2014
                : 2
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina‐Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA
                [2 ]Department of Exercise Physiology, Winston‐Salem State University, Winston‐Salem, North Carolina, USA
                [3 ]US Army Institute of Public Health, US Army Public Health Command, Aberdeen, Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland, USA
                Author notes
                CorrespondenceKevin Ritsche, Department of Exercise Physiology, Winston‐Salem State University, Rm. 200 C.E. Gaines Center, 601 S. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Winston‐Salem, NC 27110, USA. Tel: 336‐750‐3310 Fax: 336‐750‐2928 E‐mail: ritschek@ 123456wssu.edu
                Article
                phy212166
                10.14814/phy2.12166
                4254093
                25281616
                © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Original Research

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