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      Predicting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using pregnancy and birth characteristics

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          Most cited references 28

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          Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders among US children in the 2001-2004 NHANES.

          This article presents the 12-month prevalence estimates of specific mental disorders, their social and demographic correlates, and service use patterns in children and adolescents from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative probability sample of noninstitutionalized US civilians. The sample includes 3042 participants 8 to 15 years of age from cross-sectional surveys conducted from 2001 to 2004. Data on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for mental disorders were derived from administration of selected modules of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, version IV, a structured diagnostic interview administered by lay interviewers to assess psychiatric diagnoses of children and adolescents. Twelve-month prevalence rates of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined disorders in this sample were 8.6% for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 3.7% for mood disorders, 2.1% for conduct disorder, 0.7% for panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, and 0.1% for eating disorders. Boys had 2.1 times greater prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder than girls, girls had twofold higher rates of mood disorders than boys, and there were no gender differences in the rates of anxiety disorders or conduct disorder. Only approximately one half of those with one of the disorders assessed had sought treatment with a mental health professional. These data constitute a first step in building a national database on mental health in children and adolescents.
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            Prevalence, recognition, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a national sample of US children.

            To determine the US national prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and whether prevalence, recognition, and treatment vary by socioeconomic group. Cross-sectional survey. Nationally representative sample of the US population from 2001 to 2004. Eight- to 15-year-old children (N = 3082) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (caregiver module) was used to ascertain the presence of ADHD in the past year based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) criteria. Prior diagnosis of ADHD by a health professional and ADHD medication use were assessed by caregiver report. Of the children, 8.7% met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. The poorest children (lowest quintile) were more likely than the wealthiest (highest quintile) to fulfill criteria for ADHD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9). Among children meeting DSM-IV ADHD criteria, 47.9% had a prior diagnosis of ADHD and 32.0% were treated consistently with ADHD medications during the past year. Girls were less likely than boys to have their disorder identified (AOR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8), and the wealthiest children were more likely than the poorest to receive regular medication treatment (AOR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.3-9.1). Of US children aged 8 to 15 years, 8.7%, an estimated 2.4 million, meet DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. Less than half of children meeting DSM-IV criteria report receiving either a diagnosis of ADHD or regular medication treatment. Poor children are most likely to meet criteria for ADHD yet are least likely to receive consistent pharmacotherapy.
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              Rare structural variants found in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are preferentially associated with neurodevelopmental genes

              Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable disorder, but specific genetic factors underlying risk remain elusive. To assess the role of structural variation in ADHD, we identified 222 inherited copy number variations (CNVs) within 335 ADHD patients and their parents that were not detected in 2026 unrelated healthy individuals. Although no excess CNVs, either deletions or duplications, were found in the ADHD cohort relative to controls, the inherited rare CNV-associated gene set was significantly enriched for genes reported as candidates in studies of autism, schizophrenia and Tourette syndrome, including A2BP1, AUTS2, CNTNAP2 and IMMP2L. The ADHD CNV gene set was also significantly enriched for genes known to be important for psychological and neurological functions, including learning, behavior, synaptic transmission and central nervous system development. Four independent deletions were located within the protein tyrosine phosphatase gene, PTPRD, recently implicated as a candidate gene for restless legs syndrome, which frequently presents with ADHD. A deletion within the glutamate receptor gene, GRM5, was found in an affected parent and all three affected offspring whose ADHD phenotypes closely resembled those of the GRM5 null mouse. Together, these results suggest that rare inherited structural variations play an important role in ADHD development and indicate a set of putative candidate genes for further study in the etiology of ADHD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
                Arch Gynecol Obstet
                Springer Nature
                0932-0067
                1432-0711
                November 2018
                September 8 2018
                November 2018
                : 298
                : 5
                : 889-895
                Article
                10.1007/s00404-018-4888-0
                dc8ea47d-e8b3-4059-961f-b1caa69baeb6
                © 2018

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