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      Women in Zimunya and the musha mukadzi or umuzi ngumama philosophy for sustainable livelihoods

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          Abstract

          The musha mukadzi (Shona) or umuzi ngumama (Ndebele) is an African gendered philosophy that means women make up the home. This philosophy has been researched in African traditional religions (ATRs) and is interrogated from interdisciplinary angles in academia. African feminist research has highlighted how this philosophy can be derogatory, stereotyped and oppressive to women if it is naïvely used in domestic contexts. As a result, contemporary African feminists and gender scholars attempt to expose both the liberative and oppressive nature of this philosophy. This study seeks to interrogate how women from the grassroots understand this philosophy. It draws from in-depth interviews with women from Zimunya, Mutare, in Zimbabwe who describe this philosophy as a resource for sustainable livelihoods. Methods used to collect data involved in-depth interviews from a sample of 10 women whose ages ranged from 35 to 50 years. The findings highlight that for both single and married women in Zimunya, the musha mukadzi or umuzi ngumama philosophy has empowering traits that enhance women's agency and sustainable livelihoods in the domestic household. They describe how this philosophy has empowered them to initiate income-generating projects that include rearing of poultry (road runners), membership to a sewing club, selling dried traditional foods and money savings (mikando). CONTRIBUTIONS: This article explores an African gendered philosophy, musha mukadzi or umuzi ngumama [women make the home], and how this has been used as a resource by women in sustaining livelihoods

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          Most cited references26

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          'Oppressive and liberative: A Zimbabwean woman's reflections on Ubuntu'

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            Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Concepts for the 21st Century.

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              Infectious diseases and rural livelihood in developing countries

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                hts
                HTS Theological Studies
                Herv. teol. stud.
                University of Pretoria (Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa )
                0259-9422
                2072-8050
                2023
                : 79
                : 1
                : 1-8
                Affiliations
                [01] Harare orgnameUniversity of Zimbabwe orgdiv1Faculty of Arts and Humanities orgdiv2Department of Ethics, Religion and Philosophy Zimbabwe
                [02] Pretoria orgnameUniversity of Pretoria orgdiv1Faculty of Theology and Religion orgdiv2Department of Practical Theology and Mission Studies South Africa
                Article
                S0259-94222023000100058 S0259-9422(23)07900100058
                10.4102/hts.v79i1.7575
                dc9075ff-9542-41da-a6ce-3a034431458c

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 29 March 2022
                : 02 September 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 27, Pages: 8
                Product

                SciELO South Africa

                Categories
                Original Research – Special Collection: Women Theologies

                musha mukadzi,livelihoods,sustaining,philosophy,women make the home,umuzi ngumama

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