Intimal hyperplasia is a common complication following vascular interventions. To understand the underlying pathophysiology, the focus has mainly been on the intima and media. The adventitia has been less investigated, although adventitial hyperplasia is seen together with intimal hyperplasia. If the adventitial response is an important part of the process, the adventitia might be a target to inhibit intimal hyperplasia. In the present study we investigated whether an external collar attenuating the adventitial thickness could inhibit a balloon-induced intimal hyperplasia. The common carotid artery was injured in rabbits (n = 6) with a 3-french balloon catheter. The mid portion of the injured artery was encircled with a silicone collar (diameter = 2.0 mm). After 14 days the balloon-induced neointima was reduced by 54 ± 6.3% underneath the collar. The adventitial and medial thickenings were also attenuated (36 ± 8.7 and 44 ± 4.3%, respectively). This study demonstrates that intimal hyperplasia following balloon injury can be inhibited with an external collar. This supports the idea of the adventitia as a potential target to inhibit intimal hyperplasia.