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      Variability of indian monsoon and its forcing mechanisms since late quaternary

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      Frontiers in Earth Science
      Frontiers Media SA

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          Abstract

          The Indian monsoon is an important part of the global monsoon system, allowing important transfers of moisture at a large geographical scale and deeply affecting human populations and economic prosperity of regions. The tropical summer monsoon in the Northern Hemisphere is generally considered to be driven by low latitude solar radiation. Therefore, the summer monsoon strength is near zero-phase to the maximum of Northern Hemisphere Summer Insolation (NHSI). However, records from the Arabian Sea and some other parts of the Indian Ocean (e.g., Andaman Sea) show that a ∼8 kyr phase difference exists between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) strength and the northern Hemisphere Summer Insolation maxima, which is obviously different from the records of stalagmites in the East Asia and other marine sediments (e.g., Bay of Bengal). This leads to the “sea-land precession phase paradox” in indian summer monsoon research. This paper systematically summarizes the Indian monsoon variability on orbital scale indicated by various records from the Indian monsoon regions (including oceans and continents) since the late Quaternary. The orbital forcing of Indian monsoon, the potential phase difference between indian summer monsoon and northern Hemisphere Summer Insolation and its possible forcing mechanism(s) are further discussed. The observed phase lag between indian summer monsoon and northern Hemisphere Summer Insolation may be controlled by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), latent heat transfer between the southern Indian Ocean and the Asian continent, or caused by the lack of tightly coupling between the Arabian Sea summer monsoon proxies and the monsoon intensity. In addition, it is still unclear whether previous monsoon proxies can provide a strong constraint on the intensity of summer monsoon. Environmental magnetism has been widely used in high-resolution dating and the analysis of paleoclimate variabilities in marine and terrestrial sediments, due to its high sensitivity on the rainfall and temperature. Therefore, in order to solve these issues, it is necessary to combine magnetic parameters with geochemical and paleontological parameters for more systematic work in the future.

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          A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records

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            Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction

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              Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased uplift of the Himalaya-Tibetan plateau since Late Miocene times.

              The climates of Asia are affected significantly by the extent and height of the Himalayan mountains and the Tibetan plateau. Uplift of this region began about 50 Myr ago, and further significant increases in altitude of the Tibetan plateau are thought to have occurred about 10-8 Myr ago, or more recently. However, the climatic consequences of this uplift remain unclear. Here we use records of aeolian sediments from China and marine sediments from the Indian and North Pacific oceans to identify three stages of evolution of Asian climates: first, enhanced aridity in the Asian interior and onset of the Indian and east Asian monsoons, about 9-8 Myr ago; next, continued intensification of the east Asian summer and winter monsoons, together with increased dust transport to the North Pacific Ocean, about 3.6-2.6 Myr ago; and last, increased variability and possible weakening of the Indian and east Asian summer monsoons and continued strengthening of the east Asian winter monsoon since about 2.6 Myr ago. The results of a numerical climate-model experiment, using idealized stepwise increases of mountain-plateau elevation, support the argument that the stages in evolution of Asian monsoons are linked to phases of Himalaya-Tibetan plateau uplift and to Northern Hemisphere glaciation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Frontiers in Earth Science
                Front. Earth Sci.
                Frontiers Media SA
                2296-6463
                September 12 2022
                September 12 2022
                : 10
                Article
                10.3389/feart.2022.977250
                dca12a57-fe44-4970-8aba-059829ec0bdb
                © 2022

                Free to read

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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