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      Can Sergentomyia (Diptera, Psychodidae) play a role in the transmission of mammal-infecting Leishmania? Translated title: Le genre Sergentomyia (Diptera, Psychodidae) peut-il jouer un rôle dans la transmission des Leishmania infestant les mammifères ?

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      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Leishmania spp., leishmaniases, Sergentomyia sp., vector role

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          Abstract

          Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The parasites, which infect various wild and domestic mammals, including humans, are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to the Phlebotomus genus in the Old World and to several genera (including Lutzomyia, Psychodopygus and Nyssomyia) in the New World. In this paper, we consider the genus Sergentomyia as divided into seven subgenera, mainly based on spermathecal morphology: Sergentomyia, Sintonius, Parrotomyia, Rondanomyia, Capensomyia, Vattieromyia and Trouilletomyia. We also include the groups Grassomyia and Demeillonius but exclude the genera Spelaeomyia and Parvidens. The possible role of Sergentomyia in the circulation of mammalian leishmaniases in the Old World has been considered as Leishmania DNA and/or parasites have been identified in several species. However, several criteria must be fulfilled to incriminate an arthropod as a biological vector of leishmaniasis, namely: it must be attracted to and willing to feed on humans and any reservoir host, and be present in the same environment; several unambiguously identified wild female flies not containing blood meals have to be found infected (through isolation and/or typing of parasites) with the same strain of Leishmania as occurs in humans or any reservoir host; the presence of infective forms of Leishmania on naturally infected females and/or on colonized sand flies infected experimentally should be observed; and finally, the vector has to be able to transmit parasites as a result of blood-feeding on a susceptible mammal.

          Translated abstract

          Les leishmanioses sont des maladies causées par des protozoaires du genre Leishmania. Ces parasites infestent divers mammifères sauvages et domestiques incluant l’Homme. Ils sont transmis par la piqûre de phlébotomes appartenant au genre Phlebotomus dans l’Ancien Monde et à divers genres ( Lutzomyia, Psychodopygus, Nyssomyia) dans le Nouveau Monde. Dans le cadre de ce travail, nous considérons par convention que le genre Sergentomyia contient sept sous-genres principalement définis par la structure des spermathèques : Sergentomyia, Sintonius, Parrotomyia, Rondanomyia, Capensomyia, Vattieromyia et Trouilletomyia. Nous considérons également les Grassomyia et les Demeillonius mais nous excluons les genres Spelaeomyia et Parvidens. Le rôle possible de Sergentomyia dans la transmission de leishmanioses dans l’Ancien Monde est de plus en plus évoqué depuis que des promastigotes ont été observées et que de l’ADN leishmanien a été mis en évidence chez plusieurs espèces du genre. Cependant, plusieurs critères doivent être validés pour incriminer un invertébré comme vecteur de leishmaniose : il doit être attiré et capable de prendre ses repas sanguins sur l’Homme et sur les réservoirs, et être présent dans le même environnement ; plusieurs femelles non gorgées doivent avoir été trouvées infestées (par isolement puis typage des parasites) avec la même souche leishmanienne que celle isolées chez l’Homme et les réservoirs ; la présence de formes infestantes doit être observée chez des femelles sauvages ou infestées expérimentalement; enfin, le vecteur doit être capable de transmettre le parasite, par piqûre infestante, à un hôte susceptible.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Phlebotomine sandflies and the spreading of leishmaniases and other diseases of public health concern.

          Phlebotomine sandflies transmit pathogens that affect humans and animals worldwide. We review the roles of phlebotomines in the spreading of leishmaniases, sandfly fever, summer meningitis, vesicular stomatitis, Chandipura virus encephalitis and Carrión's disease. Among over 800 species of sandfly recorded, 98 are proven or suspected vectors of human leishmaniases; these include 42 Phlebotomus species in the Old World and 56 Lutzomyia species in the New World (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). Based on incrimination criteria, we provide an updated list of proven or suspected vector species by endemic country where data are available. Increases in sandfly diffusion and density resulting from increases in breeding sites and blood sources, and the interruption of vector control activities contribute to the spreading of leishmaniasis in the settings of human migration, deforestation, urbanization and conflict. In addition, climatic changes can be expected to affect the density and dispersion of sandflies. Phlebovirus infections and diseases are present in large areas of the Old World, especially in the Mediterranean subregion, in which virus diversity has proven to be higher than initially suspected. Vesiculovirus diseases are important to livestock and humans in the southeastern U.S.A. and Latin America, and represent emerging human threats in parts of India. Carrión's disease, formerly restricted to regions of elevated altitude in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, has shown recent expansion to non-endemic areas of the Amazon basin. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.
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            A Historical Overview of the Classification, Evolution, and Dispersion of Leishmania Parasites and Sandflies

            Background The aim of this study is to describe the major evolutionary historical events among Leishmania, sandflies, and the associated animal reservoirs in detail, in accordance with the geographical evolution of the Earth, which has not been previously discussed on a large scale. Methodology and Principal Findings Leishmania and sandfly classification has always been a controversial matter, and the increasing number of species currently described further complicates this issue. Despite several hypotheses on the origin, evolution, and distribution of Leishmania and sandflies in the Old and New World, no consistent agreement exists regarding dissemination of the actors that play roles in leishmaniasis. For this purpose, we present here three centuries of research on sandflies and Leishmania descriptions, as well as a complete description of Leishmania and sandfly fossils and the emergence date of each Leishmania and sandfly group during different geographical periods, from 550 million years ago until now. We discuss critically the different approaches that were used for Leishmana and sandfly classification and their synonymies, proposing an updated classification for each species of Leishmania and sandfly. We update information on the current distribution and dispersion of different species of Leishmania (53), sandflies (more than 800 at genus or subgenus level), and animal reservoirs in each of the following geographical ecozones: Palearctic, Nearctic, Neotropic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Malagasy, and Australian. We propose an updated list of the potential and proven sandfly vectors for each Leishmania species in the Old and New World. Finally, we address a classical question about digenetic Leishmania evolution: which was the first host, a vertebrate or an invertebrate? Conclusions and Significance We propose an updated view of events that have played important roles in the geographical dispersion of sandflies, in relation to both the Leishmania species they transmit and the animal reservoirs of the parasites.
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              Phlebotomine vectors of the leishmaniases: a review.

               R Killick (1989)
              An account is given of work published during the past 10 years incriminating species of phlebotomine sandflies as vectors of Leishmania species which infect man. An assessment is made of the degrees of certainty of the vectorial roles of eighty-one species and subspecies of sandflies (thirty-seven Old World and forty-four New World) in the transmission of twenty-nine leishmanial parasites of mammals. At least one species of sandfly is considered to be a proven vector of each of ten parasites. Of the eighty-one sandfly taxa, evidence is judged to be sufficient to incriminate nineteen as proven vectors (eleven Phlebotomus species and eight Lutzomyia species or subspecies) and evidence for a further fourteen (nine Phlebotomus species and five Lutzomyia species or subspecies) is considered to be strong. The suggested criteria for incrimination of a vector are anthropophily and common infection with the same leishmanial parasite as that found in man in the same place. More weight should be given to natural infections persisting after the digestion of a bloodmeal than those in the presence of blood. Supporting evidence is a concordance in the distribution of the fly and the disease in man, proof that the fly feeds regularly on the reservoir host, a flourishing development of the parasite in infected flies and the experimental transmission of the parasite by the bite of the fly.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2016
                06 December 2016
                : 23
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2016/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Global Health and Tropical Medicine, GHTM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, IHMT, Universidade de Nova Lisboa, UNL Rua da Junqueira, 100 Lisbon Portugal
                [2 ] Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, ANSES, EA4688 – USC « Transmission Vectorielle et Épidemiosurveillance de Maladies Parasitaires (VECPAR) », SFR Cap Santé, Faculté de Pharmacie 51 rue Cognacq-Jay 51096 Reims France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: carlamaia@ 123456ihmt.unl.pt

                Special Issue – ISOPS IX – International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sandflies.

                Invited Editors: Jérôme Depaquit, Bernard Pesson, Denis Augot, James Gordon Campbell Hamilton, Phillip Lawyer, and Nicole Léger

                Article
                parasite160086 10.1051/parasite/2016062
                10.1051/parasite/2016062
                5159824
                27921993
                © C. Maia and J. Depaquit, published by EDP Sciences, 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 42, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Special Issue - ISOPS 9 - International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sandflies
                Research Article

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