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      Co-fermentation of Propionibacterium freudenreichii and Lactobacillus brevis in Wheat Bran for in situ Production of Vitamin B12

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          Abstract

          The present study investigated the effect of co-fermentation on vitamin B12 content and microbiological composition of wheat bran. Propionibacterium freudenreichii DSM 20271 was used as the producer of vitamin while Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869 was selected to ensure the microbial safety of the bran dough. Fermentation trials were conducted in bioreactors to monitor and adjust the pH of the ferments. Vitamin B12 level reached 357 ± 8 ng/g dry weight (dw) after 1 day of pH-controlled fermentation with P. freudenreichii monoculture and remained stable thereafter. In co-fermentation with L. brevis, slightly less vitamin B12 (255 ± 31 ng/g dw) was produced in 1 day and an effective inhibition of the growth of total Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus cereus was obtained. On day 3, vitamin B12 content in pH-controlled co-fermentation increased to 332 ± 44 ng/g dw. On the other hand, without a pH control, co-fermentation resulted in a stronger inhibition of Enterobacteriaceae and B. cereus but a lower level of vitamin B12 (183 ± 5 ng/g dw on day 3). These results demonstrated that wheat bran fermented by P. freudenreichii and L. brevis can be a promising way to produce vitamin B12 fortified plant-origin food ingredients, which could reduce cereal waste streams and contribute to a more resilient food chain.

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          Most cited references38

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          Lactic acid bacteria as functional starter cultures for the food fermentation industry

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            The sourdough microflora: biodiversity and metabolic interactions

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              Antifungal Microbial Agents for Food Biopreservation—A Review

              Food spoilage is a major issue for the food industry, leading to food waste, substantial economic losses for manufacturers and consumers, and a negative impact on brand names. Among causes, fungal contamination can be encountered at various stages of the food chain (e.g., post-harvest, during processing or storage). Fungal development leads to food sensory defects varying from visual deterioration to noticeable odor, flavor, or texture changes but can also have negative health impacts via mycotoxin production by some molds. In order to avoid microbial spoilage and thus extend product shelf life, different treatments—including fungicides and chemical preservatives—are used. In parallel, public authorities encourage the food industry to limit the use of these chemical compounds and develop natural methods for food preservation. This is accompanied by a strong societal demand for ‘clean label’ food products, as consumers are looking for more natural, less severely processed and safer products. In this context, microbial agents corresponding to bioprotective cultures, fermentates, culture-free supernatant or purified molecules, exhibiting antifungal activities represent a growing interest as an alternative to chemical preservation. This review presents the main fungal spoilers encountered in food products, the antifungal microorganisms tested for food bioprotection, and their mechanisms of action. A focus is made in particular on the recent in situ studies and the constraints associated with the use of antifungal microbial agents for food biopreservation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                05 July 2019
                2019
                : 10
                : 1541
                Affiliations
                Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Helsinki , Helsinki, Finland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Baltasar Mayo, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain

                Reviewed by: Pasquale Russo, University of Foggia, Italy; Anna Reale, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council (CNR-ISA), Italy; Stéphanie Deutsch, INRA - Centre Bretagne Normandie, France

                *Correspondence: Chong Xie, chong.xie@ 123456helsinki.fi

                This article was submitted to Food Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2019.01541
                6624789
                31333632
                dcb1d66d-c7fd-49ad-a2b7-7ac675dd993e
                Copyright © 2019 Xie, Coda, Chamlagain, Varmanen, Piironen and Katina.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 26 February 2019
                : 20 June 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology
                propionibacterium freudenreichii,lactobacillus brevis,bioreactor,vitamin b12,wheat bran,co-fermentation

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