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      UK consensus guidelines for the use of the protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infected patients

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          Abstract

          The nonstructural 3 serine protease inhibitors (PIs), boceprevir and telaprevir, represent the first in a new generation of directly acting antivirals against genotype 1 hepatitis C (HCV) infection. When used in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, these drugs greatly improve sustained virological response rates in both treatment-naïve patients and patients who have had previous virological failure on treatment. However, the addition of these new agents will increase the complexity of therapeutic regimens, the rates of side-effects and costs. To review concisely the current evidence and to suggest current best practice, for the use of telaprevir and boceprevir in the management of chronic genotype 1 HCV infection. These guidelines for the use of boceprevir and telaprevir have been formulated following extensive review of the current literature, are based on the consensus opinion of a panel of national experts, and have been openly discussed and debated at a national meeting of HCV care providers. We have made recommendations on a number of the key practical issues facing HCV care providers: (i) Which patients to treat?; (ii) Standards for the provision of care; (iii) Pre-treatment considerations; (iv) Which treatment regimens to use?; (v) Stopping rules; and (vi) Management of adverse effects. Finally, we have produced suggested algorithms for the assessment and treatment of these patients. These UK Consensus guidelines indicate the current best practice for the use of boceprevir and telaprevir in the management of genotype 1 chronic HCV infection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Genome-wide association of IL28B with response to pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

          The recommended treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C, pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN-alpha) plus ribavirin (RBV), does not provide sustained virologic response (SVR) in all patients. We report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to null virological response (NVR) in the treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 within a Japanese population. We found two SNPs near the gene IL28B on chromosome 19 to be strongly associated with NVR (rs12980275, P = 1.93 x 10(-13), and rs8099917, 3.11 x 10(-15)). We replicated these associations in an independent cohort (combined P values, 2.84 x 10(-27) (OR = 17.7; 95% CI = 10.0-31.3) and 2.68 x 10(-32) (OR = 27.1; 95% CI = 14.6-50.3), respectively). Compared to NVR, these SNPs were also associated with SVR (rs12980275, P = 3.99 x 10(-24), and rs8099917, P = 1.11 x 10(-27)). In further fine mapping of the region, seven SNPs (rs8105790, rs11881222, rs8103142, rs28416813, rs4803219, rs8099917 and rs7248668) located in the IL28B region showed the most significant associations (P = 5.52 x 10(-28)-2.68 x 10(-32); OR = 22.3-27.1). Real-time quantitative PCR assays in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed lower IL28B expression levels in individuals carrying the minor alleles (P = 0.015).
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            Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection.

            Peginterferon-ribavirin therapy is the current standard of care for chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The rate of sustained virologic response has been below 50% in cases of HCV genotype 1 infection. Boceprevir, a potent oral HCV-protease inhibitor, has been evaluated as an additional treatment in phase 1 and phase 2 studies. We conducted a double-blind study in which previously untreated adults with HCV genotype 1 infection were randomly assigned to one of three groups. In all three groups, peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin were administered for 4 weeks (the lead-in period). Subsequently, group 1 (the control group) received placebo plus peginterferon-ribavirin for 44 weeks; group 2 received boceprevir plus peginterferon-ribavirin for 24 weeks, and those with a detectable HCV RNA level between weeks 8 and 24 received placebo plus peginterferon-ribavirin for an additional 20 weeks; and group 3 received boceprevir plus peginterferon-ribavirin for 44 weeks. Nonblack patients and black patients were enrolled and analyzed separately. A total of 938 nonblack and 159 black patients were treated. In the nonblack cohort, a sustained virologic response was achieved in 125 of the 311 patients (40%) in group 1, in 211 of the 316 patients (67%) in group 2 (P<0.001), and in 213 of the 311 patients (68%) in group 3 (P<0.001). In the black cohort, a sustained virologic response was achieved in 12 of the 52 patients (23%) in group 1, in 22 of the 52 patients (42%) in group 2 (P=0.04), and in 29 of the 55 patients (53%) in group 3 (P=0.004). In group 2, a total of 44% of patients received peginterferon-ribavirin for 28 weeks. Anemia led to dose reductions in 13% of controls and 21% of boceprevir recipients, with discontinuations in 1% and 2%, respectively. The addition of boceprevir to standard therapy with peginterferon-ribavirin, as compared with standard therapy alone, significantly increased the rates of sustained virologic response in previously untreated adults with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. The rates were similar with 24 weeks and 44 weeks of boceprevir. (Funded by Schering-Plough [now Merck]; SPRINT-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00705432.).
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              Telaprevir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

              In phase 2 trials, telaprevir, a hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 protease inhibitor, in combination with peginterferon-ribavirin, as compared with peginterferon-ribavirin alone, has shown improved efficacy, with potential for shortening the duration of treatment in a majority of patients. In this international, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 1088 patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had not received previous treatment for the infection to one of three groups: a group receiving telaprevir combined with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 12 weeks (T12PR group), followed by peginterferon-ribavirin alone for 12 weeks if HCV RNA was undetectable at weeks 4 and 12 or for 36 weeks if HCV RNA was detectable at either time point; a group receiving telaprevir with peginterferon-ribavirin for 8 weeks and placebo with peginterferon-ribavirin for 4 weeks (T8PR group), followed by 12 or 36 weeks of peginterferon-ribavirin on the basis of the same HCV RNA criteria; or a group receiving placebo with peginterferon-ribavirin for 12 weeks, followed by 36 weeks of peginterferon-ribavirin (PR group). The primary end point was the proportion of patients who had undetectable plasma HCV RNA 24 weeks after the last planned dose of study treatment (sustained virologic response). Significantly more patients in the T12PR or T8PR group than in the PR group had a sustained virologic response (75% and 69%, respectively, vs. 44%; P<0.001 for the comparison of the T12PR or T8PR group with the PR group). A total of 58% of the patients treated with telaprevir were eligible to receive 24 weeks of total treatment. Anemia, gastrointestinal side effects, and skin rashes occurred at a higher incidence among patients receiving telaprevir than among those receiving peginterferon-ribavirin alone. The overall rate of discontinuation of the treatment regimen owing to adverse events was 10% in the T12PR and T8PR groups and 7% in the PR group. Telaprevir with peginterferon-ribavirin, as compared with peginterferon-ribavirin alone, was associated with significantly improved rates of sustained virologic response in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had not received previous treatment, with only 24 weeks of therapy administered in the majority of patients. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals and Tibotec; ADVANCE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00627926.).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
                Letters to the Editors
                Wiley
                02692813
                March 2012
                March 2012
                February 01 2012
                : 35
                : 6
                : 647-662
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Gastroenterology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary; Aberdeen; UK
                [2 ]Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital; London; UK
                [3 ]Royal Derby Hospital, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; Derby; UK
                [4 ]Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Imperial College London; London; UK
                [5 ]Centre for Digestive Diseases, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry; London; UK
                [6 ]Brownlee Centre, Gartnavel General Hospital; Glasgow; UK
                [7 ]Centre for Liver and Digestive Diseases, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh; Edinburgh; UK
                [8 ]Regional Infectious Diseases Unit, Western General Hospital; Edinburgh; UK
                [9 ]Gartnavel General Hospital; Glasgow; UK
                [10 ]Liver Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital; Birmingham; UK
                [11 ]Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust; Nottingham; UK
                [12 ]Biomedical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital; Dundee; UK
                Article
                10.1111/j.1365-2036.2012.04992.x
                22296568
                © 2012

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