Background/Aims: The effects of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) on linear growth in children are well documented, but there is less convincing evidence regarding the impact on health-related quality of life (QOL). We examined QOL in children aged 8–16 years with acquired GHD following treatment for malignancy (AGHD) or idiopathic GHD (IGHD) on commencing growth hormone treatment (GHT) over 6 months. We adopted a longitudinal design involving consecutive patients and their families attending clinic over an 18-month period. Mothers and children were invited to complete questionnaires before GHT (T1) and 6 months later (T2). Methods: Mothers of 22 children (AGHD n = 14; IGHD n = 8) completed standardized measures of child QOL and behaviour. Children completed parallel measures of QOL, short-term memory tasks and fitness either in clinic or at the family home. Results: For children with AGHD, QOL was significantly below population norms at T1 and improved over time. For children diagnosed with IGHD, QOL at T1 was below, but comparable with population norms. QOL improved over time, though not significantly. Conclusion: GHT is potentially valuable for improving QOL in children, especially in cases of AGHD. We conclude that benefits of GHT for QOL need to be evaluated independent of different diagnostic groups.