Pathological angiogenesis and apoptosis evasions are common hallmarks of cancer. A different approach to the antitumor effect of parasitic diseases caused by certain protozoans and helminthes had been adopted in recent years as they can affect many cancer characteristics. The present work is an attempt to assess the effect of gamma radiation-attenuated Toxoplasma gondii ME49 as an antiapoptotic and angiogenic regulator modifier on tumor growth aimed at improving cancer protective protocols.
Attenuated Toxoplasma gondii ME49 was administered orally to mice 2 weeks before inoculation with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma to allow stimulation of the immune response. Hepatic histopathology and immune responses were determined for each group.
Marked suppression of the tumor proliferation with induction of long-lasting immunity by stimulating interferon γ and downregulating transforming growth factor β. The level of tumor promoting inflammatory markers (STAT-3 and tumor necrosis factor α), the angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor A, integrin, and matrix metallopeptidase 2 and matrix metallopeptidase 9), as well as nitric oxide concentration were significantly decreased. This was collimated with an improvement in apoptotic regulators (cytochrome-c, Bax, Bak, and caspase 3) in liver tissues of vaccinated mice group compared to Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing one. Moreover, the histopathological investigations confirmed this improvement.