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      Proarrhythmia with Non-Antiarrhythmics

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Sudden cardiac death, Proarrhythmia, Arrhythmias, Torsade de pointes

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          Abstract

          In 1987, at the American College of Cardiology national meeting, a group of physicians from Europe and the United States agreed to use the term ‘arrhythmogenesis’ to refer to an aggravation or provocation of arrhythmias resulting from any cause and specifically to use the word ‘proarrhythmia’ when such arrhythmogenesis is from drug therapy. Proarrhythmia is thus, defined as the potential of cardiac and non-cardiac drugs to induce or exacerbate arrhythmias. It is a relatively common finding in the hospitalized and outpatient settings. It was recognized since the early 1980’s, but still was considered an extremely unusual event. In many instances, unfortunately the first manifestation of proarrhythmia is death. We have identified multiple conditions and non-cardiac medications that have been reported in association with this entity. Basic concepts of ion-channels of the heart are provided in this review, to help understanding the rational of the pathophysiology, which remains of paramount importance, as it gives insight to the diagnosis, that is mostly based on electrocardiographic findings. The careful detection of the presence of comordid diseases, makes it possible to prevent, recognize, avoid mistreatment and treat the condition. We present an overview of the cardiac cellular electrophysiology, mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias and explain the substrates and targets of the pro-arrhythmic actions of non-cardiac drugs.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Probucol and multivitamins in the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty. Multivitamins and Probucol Study Group.

          Oxidizing metabolites generated at the site of coronary angioplasty can induce chain reactions that may lead to restenosis. Antioxidants may counter oxidative stress and modify neointimal formation and vascular remodeling. Experimental data and small clinical studies have suggested that antioxidants may prevent restenosis after angioplasty. In a double-blind, randomized trial, we studied whether drugs with antioxidant properties decrease the incidence and severity of restenosis after angioplasty. One month before angioplasty, 317 patients were randomly assigned to receive one of four treatments: placebo, probucol (500 mg), multivitamins (30,000 IU of beta carotene, 500 mg of vitamin C, and 700 IU of vitamin E), or both probucol and multivitamins-all given twice daily. Patients were treated for four weeks before and six months after angioplasty. Patients received an extra 1000 mg of probucol, 2000 IU of vitamin E, both probucol and vitamin E, or placebo 12 hours before angioplasty, according to their treatment assignments. Base-line and follow-up angiograms were interpreted by blinded investigators using a quantitative approach. The mean (+/-SD) reduction in luminal diameter six months after angioplasty was 0.12 +/- 0.41 mm in the probucol group, 0.22 +/- 0.46 mm in the combined-treatment group, 0.33 +/- 0.51 in the multivitamin group, and 0.38 +/- 0.50 mm in the placebo group (P = 0.006 for those receiving vs. those not receiving probucol, and P = 0.70 for those receiving vs. those not receiving vitamins. Restenosis rates per segment were 20.7 percent in the probucol group, 28.9 percent in the combined-treatment group, 40.3 percent in the multivitamin group, and 38.9 percent in the placebo group (P = 0.003 for probucol vs. no probucol). The rates of repeat angioplasty were 11.2 percent. 16.2 percent, 24.4 percent, and 26.6 percent, respectively (P = 0.009 for probucol vs. no probucol). The antioxidant probucol is effective in reducing the rate of restenosis after balloon coronary angioplasty.
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            The long QT syndromes: A critical review, new clinical observations and a unifying hypothesis

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              Randomised trial of effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa.

              WHO has recommended vitamin A supplementation for children aged 6 months or older in developing countries at the same time as immunisation. One study has reported significantly lower seroconversion ratios among children who have received vitamin A supplements with measles vaccine at age 6 months. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccination at age 9 months, which is the more common age for immunisation in developing countries. In an urban community in Guinea-Bissau, we did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of simultaneous vaccination and vitamin A supplementation in 462 children who received either a two-dose schedule of measles vaccine at the ages of 6 months and 9 months (150 infants) or one dose of measles vaccine at age 9 months (312 infants). Children were followed up to the age of 18 months and a blood sample was then collected to assess the antibody response. 397 (86%) of the children took part in the follow-up (52 [11%] had moved and 13 [3%] had died). Among children who received a two-dose vaccine schedule, seroconversion was 98%. There was no difference in seroconversion or geometric mean titre (GMT) for children receiving vitamin A compared with children receiving no supplement. Among children receiving only one dose of measles vaccine at age 9 months, seroconversion was 95%. The GMT was significantly higher in children receiving vitamin A than in those receiving no supplement (3704 vs 2439 mIU; GMT ratio 1.52 [1.22-1.88]). The effect on plasma antibody concentration in the blood was stronger for boys (3902 vs 1916 mIU; GMT ratio 2.04 [1.53-2.72]) than for girls (3502 vs 3017 mIU; GMT ratio 1.16 [0.85-1.58]) who had received vitamin A with measles vaccine. In a multivariate analysis of variance adjusted for sex, vitamin A supplementation was associated with higher antibody titres (p < 0.001). There was a significant interaction between vitamin A supplementation and sex (p = 0.02). There is no indication that simultaneous administration of measles vaccine and vitamin A supplements has a negative effect on measles immunity. Among the children who had received two doses of measles vaccine at the ages of 6 months and 9 months, supplements of vitamin A had no significant effect. Among children only receiving one dose of measles vaccine at age 9 months, 100,000 IU vitamin A increased antibody concentrations, especially for boys.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2004
                September 2004
                29 September 2004
                : 102
                : 3
                : 122-139
                Affiliations
                Division of Cardiology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, Tex., USA
                Article
                80792 Cardiology 2004;102:122–139
                10.1159/000080792
                15359098
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 168, Pages: 18
                Categories
                Review

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