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      Diversity of miniaturized frogs of the genus Adelophryne (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae): A new species from the Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil

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          Abstract

          The number of species of frogs in the South American genus Adelophryne has increased in recent years, and it has become apparent that this group contains a substantial amount of undescribed diversity. Currently the genus contains nine described species and five candidate species. Here we describe the tenth species of the genus Adelophryne from the municipality of Igrapiúna, southern Bahia state, Brazil. The new species is characterized by its small body size, indistinct tympanum, and two phalanges in the finger IV. The species of the genus are distributed in three groups, Northern Amazonia Clade, Northern Atlantic Forest Clade and Southern Atlantic Forest Clade. The new species is phylogenetically related to species of the Northern Atlantic Forest Clade of Adelophryne and restricted to forested habitat, as typical for other Adelophryne. The species is restricted to the pristine forests in the type locality, and we consider its conservation status as Near Threatened. New morphological and molecular data of other Adelophryne species are presented, extending the distribution of Adelophryne sp. 2, Adelophryne sp. 4, Adelophryne mucronata and Adelophryne glandulata. However, a more comprehensive revision of the diversity and phylogenetic position of most Adelophryne species is needed, and the evolutionary relationships of A. meridionalis and A. pachydactyla remain unknown.

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          Most cited references 26

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          MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees.

          The program MRBAYES performs Bayesian inference of phylogeny using a variant of Markov chain Monte Carlo. MRBAYES, including the source code, documentation, sample data files, and an executable, is available at http://brahms.biology.rochester.edu/software.html.
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            Amphibians of Argentina.

             JM Cei,  J.M. Cei,  MJ Cei (1980)
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              Novel relationships among hyloid frogs inferred from 12S and 16S mitochondrial DNA sequences.

              Advanced frogs (Neobatrachia) are usually divided into two taxa, Ranoidea (the firmisternal frogs) and Hyloidea (all other neobatrachians). We investigated phylogenetic relationships among several groups of Hyloidea using 12S and 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequences and tested explicit relationships of certain problematic hyloid taxa using a sample of 93 neobatrachians. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods suggest that both the Ranoidea and Hyloidea are well-supported monophyletic groups. We reject three hypotheses using parametric bootstrap simulation: (1) Dendrobatidae lies within the Ranoidea; (2) The group containing Hylidae, Pseudidae, and Centrolenidae is monophyletic; and (3) Brachycephalus is part of Bufonidae.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                19 September 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Laboratório de Herpetologia e Comportamento Animal, Campus Samambaia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
                [2 ] Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil
                [3 ] Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil
                [4 ] Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sistemas Aquáticos Tropicais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil
                [5 ] Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação da Biodiversidade, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil
                [6 ] Departamento de Vertebrados, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [7 ] Departamento de Ensino, Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso, Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil
                [8 ] Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Itapetinga, Bahia, Brazil
                [9 ] Zoological Institute, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany
                Universitat Trier, GERMANY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-30356
                10.1371/journal.pone.0201781
                6145526
                30231059
                © 2018 Lourenço-de-Moraes et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, Pages: 17
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: CNPq - Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico
                Award ID: process 152303/2016-2
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: CNPq - Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico
                Award ID: project: 404417/2015–9, process: 150372/2016–7
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: CNPq - Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico
                Award ID: process 304999/2015-6
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: CNPq - Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico
                Award ID: process 308204/2013-1
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FAPESB - Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia
                Award ID: BOL0853/2012
                Award Recipient :
                Scholarships were provided by CNPq - Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico for scholarships to RLM (process: 152303/2016-2), IRD (project: 406899/2017-7, process: 167387/2017-0), MS (process: 304999/2015-6) and RPB (process: 308204/2013-1), FAPESB - Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (BOL0853/2012) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) (process: PNPD/1682788) to CVMM, Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation/CAPES (BEX 0585/16-5) and PROTAX (CNPq–440615/2015–1 and FAPESB–PTX0002/2016) to MS.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Terrestrial Environments
                Forests
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Musculoskeletal System
                Limbs (Anatomy)
                Legs
                Feet (Anatomy)
                Toes
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                Musculoskeletal System
                Limbs (Anatomy)
                Legs
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                Evolutionary Biology
                Evolutionary Systematics
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                Custom metadata
                Sequences were submitted to Genbank under the accession numbers: MH304343–MH304346; MH304348; MH304333–MH304340; MH304347; MH304349-MH304350; MH304341–MH304342, MH304351–MH304352. The ZooBank LSIDs (Life Science Identifiers) are: Adelophryne michelin; urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C5966E51-D5DA-4B8E-BF14-73DBAF6C0163.

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