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      Chronic respiratory diseases and risk factors in 12 regions of the Russian Federation

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          Estimation suggests that at least 4 million people die, annually, as a result of chronic respiratory disease (CRD). The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD) was formed following a mandate from the World Health Assembly to address this serious and growing health problem.


          To investigate the prevalence of CRD in Russian symptomatic patients and to evaluate the frequency of major risk factors for CRD in Russia.


          A cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study using the GARD questionnaire on adults from 12 regions of the Russian Federation. Common respiratory symptoms and risk factors were recorded. Spirometry was performed in respondents with suspected CRD. Allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic bronchitis (CB) were defined by the presence of related symptoms according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma and the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines; asthma was defined based on disease symptoms; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was defined as a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume per 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 in symptomatic patients, following the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines.


          The number of questionnaires completed was 7,164 (mean age 43.4 years; 57.2% female). The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 25.7%, AR 18.2%, and CB 8.6%. Based on patient self-reported diagnosis, 6.9% had asthma, 6.5% AR, and 22.2% CB. The prevalence of COPD based on spirometry in patients with respiratory symptoms was estimated as 21.8%.


          The prevalence of respiratory diseases and risk factors was high in Russia when compared to available data. For bronchial asthma and AR, the prevalence for related symptoms was higher than self-reported previous diagnosis.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Can guideline-defined asthma control be achieved? The Gaining Optimal Asthma ControL study.

          For most patients, asthma is not controlled as defined by guidelines; whether this is achievable has not been prospectively studied. A 1-year, randomized, stratified, double-blind, parallel-group study of 3,421 patients with uncontrolled asthma compared fluticasone propionate and salmeterol/fluticasone in achieving two rigorous, composite, guideline-based measures of control: totally and well-controlled asthma. Treatment was stepped-up until total control was achieved (or maximum 500 microg corticosteroid twice a day). Significantly more patients in each stratum (previously corticosteroid-free, low- and moderate-dose corticosteroid users) achieved control with salmeterol/fluticasone than fluticasone. Total control was achieved across all strata: 520 (31%) versus 326 (19%) patients after dose escalation (p < 0.001) and 690 (41%) versus 468 (28%) at 1 year for salmeterol/fluticasone and fluticasone, respectively. Asthma became well controlled in 1,071 (63%) versus 846 (50%) after dose escalation (p < 0.001) and 1,204 (71%) versus 988 (59%) at 1 year. Control was achieved more rapidly and at a lower corticosteroid dose with salmeterol/fluticasone versus fluticasone. Across all strata, 68% and 76% of the patients receiving salmeterol/fluticasone and fluticasone, respectively, were on the highest dose at the end of treatment. Exacerbation rates (0.07-0.27 per patient per year) and improvement in health status were significantly better with salmeterol/fluticasone. This study confirms that the goal of guideline-derived asthma control was achieved in a majority of the patients.
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            Global strategy for asthma management and prevention

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              Not 15 but 50% of smokers develop COPD?--Report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Studies.

              The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to guidelines of today seems considerably higher than has been reported also in recent literature. To estimate the prevalence of COPD as defined by British Thoracic Society (BTS) criteria and the recent global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) criteria. Further aims were to assess the proportion of underdiagnosis and of symptoms in subjects with COPD, and to study risk factors for COPD. In 1996, 5892 of the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) Study's first cohort could be traced to a third follow-up survey, and 5189 completed responses (88%) were received corresponding to 79% of the original cohort from December 1985. Of the responders, a random sample of 1500 subjects were invited to a structured interview and a lung function test, and 1237 of the invited completed a lung function test with acceptable quality. In ages >45 years, the prevalence of COPD according to the BTS guidelines was 8%, while it was 14% according to the GOLD criteria. The absolutely dominating risk factors were increasing age and smoking, and approximately a half of elderly smokers fulfilled the criteria for COPD according to both the BTS and the GOLD criteria. Family history of obstructive airway disease was also a risk factor, while gender was not. Of those fulfilling the BTS criteria for COPD, 94% were symptomatics, 69% had chronic productive cough, but only 31% had prior to the study been diagnosed as having either chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD. The corresponding figures for COPD according GOLD were 88, 51, and 18%. In ages >45 years, the prevalence of COPD according to the BTS guidelines was 8%, and it was 14% according to the GOLD criteria. Fifty percent of elderly smokers had developed COPD. The large majority of subjects having COPD were symptomatic, while the proportion of those diagnosed as having COPD or similar diagnoses was small.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                12 September 2014
                : 9
                : 963-974
                [1 ]Institute of Pulmonology, Federal Medical and Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia
                [2 ]Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), Genève, Switzerland
                [3 ]GlaxoSmithKline, Moscow, Russia
                [4 ]Far Eastern Scientific Center of Physiology and Pathology of Respiration RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences), Blagoveshchensk, Russia
                [5 ]Worldwide Clinical Trials, King of Prussia, PA, USA
                [6 ]Worldwide Clinical Trials, Ekaterinburg, Russia
                [7 ]Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Montpellier, France
                [8 ]Research and Development Chief Medical Office, International Medical, GlaxoSmithKline, London, United Kingdom
                [9 ]Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Alexander G Chuchalin, Institute of Pulmonology, Federal Medical and Biological Agency, 11th Parkovaya, 32, 105077, Moscow, Russia, Tel +7 495 465 5264, Fax +7 495 465 5264, Email chuchalin@
                © 2014 Chuchalin et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                russia, chronic respiratory diseases, gard, prevalence


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