Alexander G Chuchalin 1 , Nikolai Khaltaev 2 , Nikolay S Antonov 1 , Dmitry V Galkin 3 , Leonid G Manakov 4 , Paola Antonini 5 , Michael Murphy 5 , Alexander G Solodovnikov 6 , Jean Bousquet 7 , Marcelo HS Pereira 8 , Irina V Demko 9
12 September 2014
Estimation suggests that at least 4 million people die, annually, as a result of chronic respiratory disease (CRD). The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD) was formed following a mandate from the World Health Assembly to address this serious and growing health problem.
To investigate the prevalence of CRD in Russian symptomatic patients and to evaluate the frequency of major risk factors for CRD in Russia.
A cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study using the GARD questionnaire on adults from 12 regions of the Russian Federation. Common respiratory symptoms and risk factors were recorded. Spirometry was performed in respondents with suspected CRD. Allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic bronchitis (CB) were defined by the presence of related symptoms according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma and the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines; asthma was defined based on disease symptoms; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was defined as a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume per 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 in symptomatic patients, following the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines.
The number of questionnaires completed was 7,164 (mean age 43.4 years; 57.2% female). The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 25.7%, AR 18.2%, and CB 8.6%. Based on patient self-reported diagnosis, 6.9% had asthma, 6.5% AR, and 22.2% CB. The prevalence of COPD based on spirometry in patients with respiratory symptoms was estimated as 21.8%.