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      Apolipoprotein D Expression in Retinoblastoma


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          The presence of apolipoprotein D (apoD) synthesis in brain suggests that this protein could play a major role in mediating neuronal degeneration and regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). For instance, apoD is overexpressed in neural tissues in Niemann-Pick’s type C disease, after acute CNS injury and cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer’s disease and by a number of different tumors such as breast, prostate, ovarian and endometrial carcinomas. Recent data have raised the possibility that apoD expression could be a marker of cellular differentiation and growth arrest. By immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the tumoral expression of apoD in retinoblastoma, a tumor that results from malignant transformation of primitive retinal cells before final differentiation, and analyzed the possible relationship with clinicopathological parameters such as: age, sex, histological type, staging, local invasion, metastasis, preoperative or postoperative treatment and bilateral tumors. A total of eleven retinoblastomas (55%) showed apoD-positive immunostaining, but no significant correlation was found between apoD expression and patient or tumor characteristics.

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          A human axillary odorant is carried by apolipoprotein D.

          The characterization of the source of the odor in the human axillary region is not only of commercial interest but is also important biologically because axillary extracts can alter the length and timing of the female menstrual cycle. In males, the most abundant odor component is known to be E-3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid (E-3M2H), which is liberated from nonodorous apocrine secretions by axillary microorganisms. Recently, it was found that in the apocrine gland secretions, 3M2H is carried to the skin surface bound to two proteins, apocrine secretion odor-binding proteins 1 and 2 (ASOB1 and ASOB2) with apparent molecular masses of 45 kDa and 26 kDa, respectively. To better understand the formation of axillary odors and the structural relationship between 3M2H and its carrier protein, the amino acid sequence and glycosylation pattern of ASOB2 were determined by mass spectrometry. The ASOB2 protein was identified as apolipoprotein D (apoD), a known member of the alpha2mu-microglobulin superfamily of carrier proteins also known as lipocalins. The pattern of glycosylation for axillary apoD differs from that reported for plasma apoD, suggesting different sites of expression for the two glycoproteins. In situ hybridization of an oligonucleotide probe against apoD mRNA with axillary tissue demonstrates that the message for synthesis of this protein is specific to the apocrine glands. These results suggest a remarkable similarity between human axillary secretions and nonhuman mammalian odor sources, where lipocalins have been shown to carry the odoriferous signals used in pheromonal communication.
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            Gene Expression in Scrapie


              Author and article information

              Ophthalmic Res
              Ophthalmic Research
              S. Karger AG
              April 2003
              24 March 2003
              : 35
              : 2
              : 111-116
              aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Alvarez-Buylla and bDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital San Agustín, and Departments of cPathology and dSurgery, Hospital de Jove, Avilés, Asturias; eDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain
              69130 Ophthalmic Res 2003;35:111–116
              © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              : 27 September 2002
              : 26 November 2002
              Page count
              Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 38, Pages: 6
              Original Paper

              Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
              Retinoblastoma,Apolipoprotein D,Immunohistochemistry


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