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Improvement of a rapid diagnostic application of monoclonal antibodies against avian influenza H7 subtype virus using Europium nanoparticles

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      Abstract

      The development of a sensitive and rapid diagnostic test is needed for early detection of avian influenza (AI) H7 subtype. In this study, novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against influenza A H7N9 recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA)1 were developed and applied to a Europium nanoparticle–based rapid fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test (FICT) to improve the sensitivity of the rapid diagnostic system. Two antibodies (2F4 and 6D7) exhibited H7 subtype specificity in a dot-FICT assay by optimization of the conjugate and the pH of the lysis buffer. The subtype specificity was confirmed by an immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analysis. The limit of detection of the FICT employing novel mAbs 31 ng/mL for H7N9 rHA1 and 40 hemagglutination units/mL for H7 subtype virus. Sensitivity was improved 25-fold using Europium as confirmed by comparison of colloidal gold-based rapid diagnostic kit using the 2F4 and 6D7 mAbs.

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      Development of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for type A influenza virus and the avian H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes.

      A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR) assay based on the avian influenza virus matrix gene was developed for the rapid detection of type A influenza virus. Additionally, H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtype-specific probe sets were developed based on North American avian influenza virus sequences. The RRT-PCR assay utilizes a one-step RT-PCR protocol and fluorogenic hydrolysis type probes. The matrix gene RRT-PCR assay has a detection limit of 10 fg or approximately 1,000 copies of target RNA and can detect 0.1 50% egg infective dose of virus. The H5- and H7-specific probe sets each have a detection limit of 100 fg of target RNA or approximately 10(3) to 10(4) gene copies. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR assay were directly compared with those of the current standard for detection of influenza virus: virus isolation (VI) in embryonated chicken eggs and hemagglutinin subtyping by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The comparison was performed with 1,550 tracheal and cloacal swabs from various avian species and environmental swabs obtained from live-bird markets in New York and New Jersey. Influenza virus-specific RRT-PCR results correlated with VI results for 89% of the samples. The remaining samples were positive with only one detection method. Overall the sensitivity and specificity of the H7- and H5-specific RRT-PCR were similar to those of VI and HI.
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        Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

        Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 are the causative agents of fowl plague in poultry. Influenza A viruses of subtype H5N1 also caused severe respiratory disease in humans in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, including at least seven fatal cases, posing a serious human pandemic threat. Between the end of February and the end of May 2003, a fowl plague outbreak occurred in The Netherlands. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus of subtype H7N7, closely related to low pathogenic virus isolates obtained from wild ducks, was isolated from chickens. The same virus was detected subsequently in 86 humans who handled affected poultry and in three of their family members. Of these 89 patients, 78 presented with conjunctivitis, 5 presented with conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness, 2 presented with influenza-like illness, and 4 did not fit the case definitions. Influenza-like illnesses were generally mild, but a fatal case of pneumonia in combination with acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred also. Most virus isolates obtained from humans, including probable secondary cases, had not accumulated significant mutations. However, the virus isolated from the fatal case displayed 14 amino acid substitutions, some of which may be associated with enhanced disease in this case. Because H7N7 viruses have caused disease in mammals, including horses, seals, and humans, on several occasions in the past, they may be unusual in their zoonotic potential and, thus, form a pandemic threat to humans.
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          Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands.

          An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H7N7 started at the end of February, 2003, in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. Although the risk of transmission of these viruses to humans was initially thought to be low, an outbreak investigation was launched to assess the extent of transmission of influenza A virus subtype H7N7 from chickens to humans. All workers in poultry farms, poultry farmers, and their families were asked to report signs of conjunctivitis or influenza-like illness. People with complaints were tested for influenza virus type A subtype H7 (A/H7) infection and completed a health questionnaire about type of symptoms, duration of illness, and possible exposures to infected poultry. 453 people had health complaints--349 reported conjunctivitis, 90 had influenza-like illness, and 67 had other complaints. We detected A/H7 in conjunctival samples from 78 (26.4%) people with conjunctivitis only, in five (9.4%) with influenza-like illness and conjunctivitis, in two (5.4%) with influenza-like illness only, and in four (6%) who reported other symptoms. Most positive samples had been collected within 5 days of symptom onset. A/H7 infection was confirmed in three contacts (of 83 tested), one of whom developed influenza-like illness. Six people had influenza A/H3N2 infection. After 19 people had been diagnosed with the infection, all workers received mandatory influenza virus vaccination and prophylactic treatment with oseltamivir. More than half (56%) of A/H7 infections reported here arose before the vaccination and treatment programme. We noted an unexpectedly high number of transmissions of avian influenza A virus subtype H7N7 to people directly involved in handling infected poultry, and we noted evidence for person-to-person transmission. Our data emphasise the importance of adequate surveillance, outbreak preparedness, and pandemic planning.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0533 4755, GRID grid.410899.d, Zoonosis Research Center, Department of Infection Biology, , School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, ; 460, Iksan-daero, Iksan, 54538 Republic of Korea
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0532 3933, GRID grid.251916.8, Department of Microbiology, , Ajou University School of medicine, and Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Ajou University, ; Suwon, Republic of Korea
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0705 4288, GRID grid.411982.7, , GenBody Inc, No. 206, Biotech Business IC, DanKook University, ; San-29, Anseo-dong, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan, Republic of Korea
            Contributors
            hjshin@ajou.ac.kr
            hyunpk@wku.ac.kr
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2045-2322
            11 August 2017
            11 August 2017
            2017
            : 7
            28801679
            5554140
            8328
            10.1038/s41598-017-08328-9
            © The Author(s) 2017

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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