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      Molluscicidal activity of various solvent extracts from Solanum nigrum var. villosum L. aerial parts against Galba truncatula Translated title: Activité molluscicide des différents extraits des parties aériennes de Solanum nigrum var. villosum L. contre le mollusque Galba truncatula

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          Molluscicidal activity of Solanum nigrum var. villosum (morelle velue) extracts and their fractions were tested against the mollusca gastropoda Galba truncatula intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. The results indicated that the hydro-methanol (MeOH-H 2O) immature fruit extract possess the highest molluscicidal activity (LC 50 = 3.96 mg/L) against Galba truncatula compared with other tested compounds. After acido-basic treatment, the methanolic extract fraction isolated from the immature fruits and the richest in alkaloids was the most toxic (LC 50 = 1.65 mg/L). The fractions richest in saponosides obtained from the hydromethanolic and methanolic extracts of immature fruits showed interesting molluscicidal activities (LC 50 = 6.15 mg/L and LC 50 = 7.91 mg/L, respectively). The observed molluscicide activity could be attributed to the presence of alkaloids or saponosides. So, the immature fruits of Solanum nigrum var. villosum could be substrates of choice for molluscicide activity. In addition, total alkaloids and saponosides present in this plant deserve further investigations in order to identify the active principles and demonstrate their activities on mollusks in their natural habitat. According to the World Health Organization’s guidelines on screening for plant molluscicides, use of these fractions may add to the arsenal of methods to control snail transmitting fasciolosis in tropical and Third World countries where fasciolosis is a common disease.

          Translated abstract

          Les activités molluscicides des extraits au dichlorométhane, au méthanol et au méthanol-eau des différents organes (feuilles, fruits immatures et fruits mâtures) de Solanum nigrum var. villosum (morelle velue) ont été testées contre le mollusque gastéropode Galba truncatula hôte intermédiaire de Fasciola hepatica. Les résultats ont montré que l’extrait hydrométhanolique (MeOH-H 2O) des fruits immatures était le plus actif contre le mollusque Galba truncatula (CL50 = 3,96 mg/L) comparativement aux autres composés testés. Après traitement acido-basique, la fraction de l’extrait méthanolique, isolée à partir des fruits immatures et la plus riche en alcaloïdes, était la plus toxique (CL50 = 1,65 mg/L). De plus, les fractions les plus riches en saponosides des extraits hydrométhanoliques et méthanoliques des fruits immatures ont montré des activités molluscicides intéressantes (CL50 = 6,15 mg/L et CL50 = 7,91 mg/L, respectivement). L’activité molluscicide observée pourrait donc être attribuée à la présence d’alcaloïdes ou de saponosides. Ainsi, les fruits immatures de Solanum nigrum var. villosum pourraient être des substrats de choix pour l’activité molluscicide. De plus, les alcaloïdes totaux et les saponosides présents méritent des investigations supplémentaires afin d’identifier les principes actifs et prouver leurs activités sur les mollusques dans leur habitat naturel. Selon l’OMS, l’utilisation de ces fractions pourrait s’ajouter à l’arsenal des méthodes de lutte contre les mollusques transmettant la fasciolose dans les pays tropicaux et le Tiers-Monde où la fasciolose est endémique.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Molluscicide screening and evaluation.

           WHO (1964)
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            Steroidal saponins from Solanum nigrum.

            Six new steroidal saponins, solanigrosides C-H (2-7), and one known saponin, degalactotigonin (1), were isolated from the whole plant of Solanum nigrum. Their chemical structures were elucidated using spectroscopic analysis, chemical degradation, and derivatization. All seven compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity using four human tumor cell lines (HepG2, NCI-H460, MCF-7, SF-268). Only compound 1 was cytotoxic, with IC50 values of 0.25-4.49 microM.
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              Bioactive steroidal alkaloid glycosides from Solanum aculeastrum.

              Solanum aculeastrum Dunal was investigated for the presence of molluscicidal compounds. This led to the isolation of solaculine A, from the root bark in addition to known steroidal alkaloids; solamargine and beta-solamarine from the berries. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. Molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extracts of the berries and root bark, and the isolated compounds were investigated.

                Author and article information

                Parasite : journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
                EDP Sciences
                February 2011
                15 February 2011
                : 18
                : 1 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2011/01 )
                : 63-70
                [1 ] Fungal and Parasitic Molecular Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sfax 3029 Sfax Tunisia
                [2 ] Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Products, Faculty of Science, University of Sfax Tunisia
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Ali Ayadi. Tel./Fax: 216 74 24 71 30. E-mail: ali.ayadi@ 123456rns.tn


                parasite2011181p63 10.1051/parasite/2011181063
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2011

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 38, Pages: 8
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