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Toxicity and genotoxicity of water and sediment from streams on dotted duckweed (Landoltia punctata) Translated title: Toxicidade e genotoxicidade da água e sedimentos dos córregos em lentilha d'água (Landoltia punctata)

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      Abstract

      Most rivers are used as a source to supply entire cities; the quality of water is directly related to the quality of tributaries. Unfortunately men have neglected the importance of streams, which receive domestic and industrial effluents and transport nutrients and pesticides from rural areas. Given the complexity of the mixtures discharged into these water bodies, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of water and sediment of ten tributaries of Pirapó River, in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. To this end, the free-floating macrophyte Landoltia punctata (G. Meyer) Les & D.J.Crawford was used as test organism in microcosm, and the toxicity of water and sediment samples was evaluated by the relative growth rate, dry/fresh biomass ratio, and genotoxic effects (comet assay). Samples of water and sediment of each stream were arranged in microcosms with L. punctata. Seven days later, plants were collected for analysis. Nutrient levels were higher than the reference location, indicating eutrophication, but the results indicated a toxic effect for only three streams, and a genotoxic effect for all streams.

      Translated abstract

      Muitos rios são utilizados como fonte de abastecimento de cidades inteiras e a qualidade de suas águas está relacionada diretamente à qualidade de seus afluentes. Infelizmente córregos têm sua importância negligenciada pelo homem sendo alvo de despejos domésticos e industriais e também do carreamento de nutrientes e pesticidas das áreas rurais. Diante da complexidade das misturas que atingem estes corpos d'água, o presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água e do sedimento de dez afluentes do rio Pirapó no município de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Utilizou-se a macrófita aquática flutuante Landoltia punctata (G. Meyer) Les & D.J.Crawford como organismo teste em microcosmos, sendo que a toxicidade das amostras de água e sedimento foi avaliada pela taxa de crescimento relativo, pelo índice de biomassa seca por fresca, e pelos efeitos genotóxicos (ensaio de cometa). Amostras de água e sedimento de cada córrego foram dispostos em microcosmos com L. punctata. Após 7 dias as plantas foram coletadas para as análises. Os níveis de nutrientes foram maiores que o do local de referência indicando eutrofização; porém, os resultados indicaram efeito tóxico em apenas três dos córregos e genotóxico em todos os córregos.

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      Most cited references 36

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      Fundamentos de limnología

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        An exact definition of total alkalinity and a procedure for the estimation of alkalinity and total inorganic carbon from titration data

         A.G. Dickson (1981)
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          Heavy metal toxicity: cadmium permeates through calcium channels and disturbs the plant water status.

          Because plant wilting has been described as a consequence of cadmium (Cd2+) toxicity, we investigate Cd2+ effects on plant water losses, gas exchanges and stomatal behaviour in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Effects of 1-week Cd2+ application in hydroponic condition (CdCl2 10-100 micro m) were analyzed. A 10- micro m Cd2+ concentration had no significant effect on the plant-water relationship and carbon assimilation. At higher Cd2+ concentrations, a Cd2+ -dependent decrease in leaf conductance and CO2 uptake was observed despite the photosynthetic apparatus appeared not to be affected as probed by fluorescence measurements. In epidermal strip bioassays, nanomolar Cd2+ concentrations reduced stomatal opening under light in A. thaliana, Vicia faba and Commelina communis. Application of 5 micro m ABA limited the root-to-shoot translocation of cadmium. However, the Cd2+-induced stomatal closure was likely ABA-independent, since a 5-day treatment with 50 micro m Cd2+ did not affect the plant relative water content. Additionally, a similar Cd2+-induced stomatal closure was observed in the ABA insensitive mutant abi1-1. Interestingly, this mutant displayed a higher transpiration rate than the wild type but did not accumulate more Cd2+, arguing that Cd2+ uptake is not dependent only on the transpiration flow. Application of putative calcium channels inhibitors suppressed the inhibitory effect of Cd2+ in epidermal strip experiments, suggesting that Cd2+ could enter the guard cell through calcium channels. Patch-clamp studies with V. faba guard cell protoplasts showed that plasma membrane K+ channels were insensitive to external Cd2+ application whereas Ca2+ channels were found permeable to Cd2+. In conclusion, we propose that Cd2+ affects guard cell regulation in an ABA-independent manner by entering the cytosol via Ca2+ channels.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade Estadual de Maringá Brazil
            [2 ] Universidade Estadual de Maringá Brazil
            [3 ] Faculdade Ingá Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            bjb
            Brazilian Journal of Biology
            Braz. J. Biol.
            Instituto Internacional de Ecologia (São Carlos )
            1678-4375
            November 2014
            : 74
            : 4
            : 769-778
            S1519-69842014000400769 10.1590/1519-6984.01013

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            BIOLOGY

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