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      C-Reactive Protein and Interleukin-6 Levels Are Related to Renal Function in Predialytic Chronic Renal Failure

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          Background: Several studies have provided convincing evidence that in apparently healthy subjects elevated serum levels of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with an increased risk of experiencing myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. It has been claimed that, in dialytic patients, the hepatic synthesis of this ‘acute phase response’ plasma protein is primarily induced by the macrophage-derived interleukin 6 (IL-6). Little information is available, however, regarding CRP and IL-6 plasma levels in pre-dialytic renal failure. Methods: Plasma CRP by a modification of the laser nephelometry technique, IL-6 and serum albumin were determined in 103 chronic pre-dialytic patients (mean age 50 ± 6.3 years; creatinine clearance ( 36.3 ± 23.1 ml/min). Results: CRP was >5 mg/l (normal upper range) in 42% of the global population. CRP and IL-6 were significantly related (r = 0.35, p < 0.0004). CRP and IL-6 were related to renal function (CRP vs., r = –0.56, p < 0.0001; IL-6 vs., r = –0.55, p < 0.0001, Spearman correlation coefficient). When patients were divided in tertiles according to renal function, CRP median value resulted 7.9 mg/l (interquartile interval: 5–12) in the first tertile ( <18.5 ml/min), 4.0 mg/l (3–6) in the second tertile ( 18.5–45 ml/min) and 3.2 mg/l (2.7–4.0) in the last tertile ( >45 ml/min) (p < 0.0001). A negative correlation between CRP and S-albumin was also found (r = –0.52, p < 0.0001, Spearman correlation coefficient). Conclusions: IL-6 and CRP were increased and were inversely related to creatinine clearance in our population of 103 chronic predialytic patients. The possibility of a decreased renal clearance of CRP and/or cytokines as a cause of an activated acute-phase response is discussed. A negative correlation between CRP and S-albumin was found confirming the link between chronic inflammation and malnutrition in chronic renal patients.

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          RAGE Mediates a Novel Proinflammatory Axis

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            Association of morbidity with markers of nutrition and inflammation in chronic hemodialysis patients: a prospective study.

            Numerous studies suggest a strong association between nutrition and clinical outcome in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological link between malnutrition and morbidity remains to be clarified. In addition, recent evidence suggests that nutritional indices may reflect an inflammatory response, as well as protein-calorie malnutrition. In this study, we prospectively assessed the relative importance of markers of nutritional status and inflammatory response as determinants of hospitalization in CHD patients. The study consisted of serial measurements of concentrations of serum albumin, creatinine, transferrin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and reactance values by bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) as an indirect measure of lean body mass every 3 months over a period of 15 months in 73 CHD patients. Outcome was determined by hospitalizations over the subsequent three months following each collection of data. Patients who required hospitalization in the three months following each of the measurement sets had significantly different values for all parameters than patients who were not hospitalized. Thus, serum albumin (3.93 +/- 0.39 vs. 3.74 +/- 0.39 g/dl), serum creatinine (11.0 +/- 3.7 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.5 mg/dl), serum transferrin (181 +/- 35 vs. 170 +/- 34 mg/dl), serum prealbumin (33.6 +/- 9.2 vs. 30.0 +/- 10.1 mg/dl), and reactance (50.4 +/- 15.6 vs. 43.0 +/- 13.0 ohms) were higher for patients not hospitalized, whereas CRP (0.78 +/- 0.89 vs. 2.25 +/- 2.72 mg/dl) was lower in patients who were not hospitalized. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05 for all parameters). When multivariate analysis was performed, serum CRP and reactance values were the only statistically significant predictors of hospitalization (P < 0.05 for both). When a serum CRP concentration of 0.12 mg/dl was considered as a reference range (relative risk 1.0), the relative risk for hospitalization was 7% higher (relative risk = 1.07) for a CRP concentration of 0.92 mg/dl and was 30% (relative risk = 1.30) higher for a CRP concentration of 3.4 mg/dl. When a reactance value of 70 ohms was considered as a reference range with a relative risk of 1.0, the relative risk of hospitalization increased to 1.09 for a reactance value of 43 ohms and further increased to 1.14 for a reactance value of 31 ohms. The results of this study strongly indicate that both nutritional status and inflammatory response are independent predictors of hospitalization in CHD patients. CRP and reactance values by BIA are reliable indicators of hospitalization. Visceral proteins such as serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin are influenced by inflammation when predicting hospitalization. When short-term clinical outcomes such as hospitalizations are considered, markers of both inflammation and nutrition should be evaluated.

              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              August 2002
              15 July 2002
              : 91
              : 4
              : 594-600
              Departments of aInternal Medicine of Pisa, bNeuroscience (Pharmacology section) and cExperimental Pathology, University of Pisa and IFC-CNR, dDepartment of Human Anatomy, UniversityofMilan, eClinical and Laboratory Research Department at Bellco, Bellco S.p.A., Mirandola, Italy
              65018 Nephron 2002;91:594–600
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 27, Pages: 7
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