+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of Ipex, Root Zx Mini, and Epex Pro Apex Locators in Teeth with Artificially Created Root Perforations in Presence of Various Intracanal Irrigants

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          The study aimed to compare and evaluate the accuracy of iPex, Root ZX mini, and Epex Pro Electronic apex locators (EALs) in diagnosing root perforations in both dry and in different wet conditions: 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), and 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).


          Thirty extracted, human single rooted mandibular premolars were artificially perforated with a diameter of 1.5 mm in middle third of root. Actual canal lengths (ALs) in millimetre (mm) were evaluated for all teeth up to perforation location, and alginate mould were used to embed the teeth. After this, the electronic measurements were calculated by all EALs up to perforation site using a 20 K-file in both dry and wet canal conditions. Up to the perforation sites, the ALs were subtracted from the electronic length. Statistical analyses were done using One-way ANOVA with post hoc tukey’s test for pairwise comparison and the level of significance was set at 0.05.


          All three EAL’s detected canal perforations which were clinically acceptable. There was significant difference for dry and wet conditions. Most accurate measurement were seen in dry canals for all three EALs. Root ZX mini in dry condition showed most accurate reading and there was a significant difference when compared with other groups. No significance difference was observed in iPex and Epex Pro Apex locator, and between NaOCl and CHX, CHX and EDTA.


          Perforations were determined within a clinical acceptable range of 0.03–0.05 mm by all three EALs. Root ZX mini in dry canals gave most accurate measurement. The presence of irrigating solution influenced the accuracy of all the apex locators.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 27

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          New Method for Measuring the Length of the Root Canal

           I Sunada (1962)
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Root perforations. A review of literature.

             H Alhadainy (1994)
            Root perforations that result in a communication of the root space with the periodontal tissues occasionally occur during endodontic procedures. They may be induced iatrogenically, by resorptive process, or by caries. Identification of root perforations is possible by direct observation of bleeding, indirect bleeding assessment using a paper point, radiography, and an apex locator. Prognosis of a tooth with root perforation depends on the time lapsed before obturation of the perforation, location and size of the lesion, and the sealability of the repair material. Perforation defects may be repaired by nonsurgical or surgical techniques. A review of causes, diagnosis, prognosis, and management of root perforations provides information for avoiding, detecting, and treating of such defects.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Accuracy of a new apex locator: an in vitro study.

              The purpose of this study was to test in an in vitro model the accuracy of a Bingo 1020 electronic apex locator, to compare the results to those of a well known apex locator, Root ZX, as well as to those of the radiographic method of tooth length determination. A total of 120 extracted teeth, preserved in Thymol solution and kept refrigerated, was used for the study. The experiment was performed on single-rooted teeth and on one-root canal, chosen randomly, in multirooted teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into 12 groups of 10 teeth each. After access preparation, the actual length (AL) was measured. The teeth were embedded in an alginate model specially developed for testing apex locators. Electronic tooth length measurements (EL) were carried out prior to root canal preparation using the two electronic apex locators (EAL) - Root ZX and Bingo 1020; three measurements were taken and an average computed. After the third measurement, the file was left in the root canal and a periapical radiograph was taken. The radiographic length (RL) was recorded by measuring the file length from the coronal reference point to the tip of the file. Each root canal was then prepared to a no. 40 K-file diameter using a standardized technique; saline was used for irrigation. Upon completion of the root canal preparation, EL measurements were taken by each EAL in dry conditions and with different irrigation solutions. Each measurement was repeated three times. The RL was recorded according to the last EL measurement. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. In all parameters tested, a significant statistical difference was found between Bingo 1020 and the Root ZX. Measurements obtained using the Bingo 1020 were consistently closer to the AL (0.08 mm) than those obtained using the Root ZX. Both EALs measured the tooth length with great accuracy and a positive correlation of 0.76 (P = 0.00) existed between the two devices. No significant difference was found between the two apex locators when measurements were taken with the different irrigants (P = 0.34) and the content of the root canal did not affect the accuracy of the measurements. Lengths obtained by calculations from the radiographs were longer than the AL as well as the length obtained by both EALs (P = 0.00). The Bingo 1020 proved to be as reliable as Root ZX and was user friendly. Under the experimental conditions, electronic measurements were more reliable than radiographs in the process of root length determination.

                Author and article information

                Eur Endod J
                Eur Endod J
                European Endodontic Journal
                Kare Publishing (Turkey )
                19 March 2020
                : 5
                : 1
                : 6-9
                [1 ]From the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sri Aurobindo College of dentistry, Indore, India
                Author notes
                Copyright: © 2020 European Endodontic Journal

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

                Original Article


                Comment on this article