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      The association of various social capital indicators and physical activity participation among Turkish adolescents


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          Physical activity participation (PAP) has been proven to improve health and promote optimal growth among adolescents. However, most adolescents do not meet the current physical activity (PA) recommendations in Turkey. The role of the social environment and social factors on PAP is being increasingly recognized. Although social capital (SC) indicators have been examined in high-income countries, there are few studies on developing countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between SC indicators and PAP among Turkish adolescents.


          A survey was conducted among 19 high schools in 4 different cities in Turkey in 2016. A total of 506 female and 729 male high school students participated in this study. The dependent variable was overall PAP, which was measured using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The independent variables included self-perceived family, neighborhood, and school SC. Self-rated health and obesity status, measured by body mass index, were other study covariates in multiple binary logistic regression models. Chi-square tests were used to assess the differences between genders.


          PAP levels were significantly different between males and females. A higher percentage of males reported PAP (77.4%) compared to females (51.0%). Among males, teacher–student interpersonal trust and informal social control were inversely associated with PAP, while high students interpersonal trust was positively associated with increased odds of PAP. For females, students interpersonal trust was inversely associated with PAP.


          Various SC indicators are associated with PAP for males and females. These associations are different from findings of studies conducted in developed countries. Therefore, health-promotion interventions and policies should consider gender and different social agents on the social and cultural background to improve PAP among Turkish adolescents.

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          Most cited references43

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              Tracking of Physical Activity from Childhood to Adulthood: A Review

              The aim of the article was to review studies on the tracking of physical activity in all phases of life from childhood to late adulthood. The majority of the studies have been published since 2000. The follow-up time in most studies was short, the median being 9 years. In men, the stability of physical activity was significant but low or moderate during all life phases and also in longterm follow-ups. In women, the tracking was lower and in many cases non-significant. Among both sexes, stability seems to be lower in early childhood than in adolescence or in adulthood and lower in transitional phases, such as from childhood to adolescence or from adolescence to adulthood, than in adulthood. However, the differences in the stability of physical activity between age groups and between different phases of life were small. The number of tracking studies utilising objective methods to measure physical activity was so small that systematic differences in stability between self-report and objective methods could not be determined. A factor which caused differences in tracking results was the adjustment of correlations for measurement error and other error variance. Adjusted coefficients were clearly higher than unadjusted ones. However, adjustment was done only in very few studies. If the different methods used for estimating habitual physical activity and the failure to control for important covariates in studies of tracking are taken into account, physical activity appears to track reasonably well also in the longer term, for example from adolescence to adulthood. The results of the tracking studies support the idea that the enhancement of physical activity in children and adolescents is of great importance for the promotion of public health.

                Author and article information

                J Sport Health Sci
                J Sport Health Sci
                Journal of Sport and Health Science
                Shanghai University of Sport
                05 December 2017
                January 2018
                05 December 2017
                : 7
                : 1
                : 27-33
                [a ]Department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Anadolu University, Eskişehir 26555, Turkey
                [b ]Department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06800, Turkey
                [c ]Department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Ordu University, Ordu 52200, Turkey
                [d ]Department of General and Applied Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10110, Croatia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. gunayyildizer@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2018 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Shanghai University of Sport.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Special issue on Physical Activity and Public Health

                adolescents,family,neighborhood,physical activity,public health,school,social capital


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