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      Trabajadores del sexo y salud pública: intersecciones, vulnerabilidades y resistencia Translated title: Sex workers and public health: intersections, vulnerabilities and resistance

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Desde el siglo XIX, con la sífilis y, más recientemente, con el sida, lxs trabajadorxs del sexo pasaron a ser vistos como medios de transmisión de enfermedades y como un problema de salud pública que requiere intervención. Sin embargo, las investigaciones han demostrado que, en los países occidentales, la tasa de VIH en personas involucradas con la venta de sexo es baja, con excepción de grupos específicos, como los consumidores de drogas por vía inyectable. Además, se han puesto en evidencia los riesgos a los que están sometidos lxs trabajadorxs del sexo, por vía de la estigmatización o de otras formas de violencia. En este artículo, a partir de una etnografía urbana con trabajadorxs del sexo de calle, llevada a cabo en la ciudad de Porto (Portugal) entre 2004 y 2005, discutimos las vulnerabilidades sociales, laborales y jurídicas que afectan a las personas involucradas en el comercio del sexo y cómo interfieren en su salud. Nos centraremos en las estrategias de lxs trabajadorxs del sexo para minimizar los riesgos para la salud y el discurso de resistencia en el combate a las vulnerabilidades.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT Since the 19th century with syphilis and most recently with AIDS, sex workers have been seen as a means for disease transmission and a public health problem that requires intervention. However, researchers have shown that in Western countries, HIV rates in people involved in commercial sex are low, except for in specific groups, such as intravenous drug users. Moreover, the risks faced by sex workers due to stigmatization and other forms of violence have been put into evidence. Based on an urban ethnography with street sex workers carried out in Porto (Portugal), between 2004 and 2005, this article discusses the social, labor, and legal vulnerabilities affecting people involved in commercial sex and how these interfere with their health. Focus is placed on the strategies used by sex workers to minimize health risks and their discourses of resistance in fighting vulnerabilities.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Covering up what can't be seen: concealable stigma and mental control.

          In these studies the authors examined the effects of concealing a stigma in a social interaction relevant to the stigma. An interview paradigm called for undergraduate female participants who either did or did not have eating disordered characteristics to play the role of someone who did or did not have an eating disorder (ED) while answering stigma-relevant questions. The data suggest that the participants who concealed their stigmas become preoccupied with the control of stigma-relevant thoughts. In Study 1, participants with an ED who role-played not having an ED exhibited more secrecy, suppression, and intrusive thoughts of their ED and more projection of ED-related thoughts onto the interviewer than did those with an ED who role-played someone with an ED or those without an ED who role-played someone without an ED. This finding was replicated in Study 2, and the authors found both increasing accessibility of ED-related words among those participants with concealed stigmas during the interview and high levels of accessibility following the interview.
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            The role of relationship intimacy in consistent condom use among female sex workers and their regular paying partners in the Dominican Republic.

            Prior research has demonstrated an important link between relationship intimacy and condom use. Limited research has been conducted on this connection within the realm of female sex work. We examined the association between perceived relationship intimacy and consistent condom use among 258 female sex workers and 278 male regular paying partners who participated in a cross-sectional survey in the Dominican Republic. In multivariate analysis, higher intimacy among sex workers and regular paying partners was negatively associated with consistent condom use. Among those reporting higher perceived intimacy, male participants were more than twice as likely to report consistent condom use as female participants. Female sex workers in relationships of higher perceived intimacy are at greater risk of HIV/AIDS than their male regular paying partners. Gender-sensitive HIV prevention programs are needed to address the differential influence of relationship intimacy on condom use in the context of sex work.
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              The use of the Internet by gay and bisexual male escorts: sex workers as sex educators.

               J Parsons,  J Koken,  D S Bimbi (2004)
              While prior studies have targeted street-based male sex workers as potential vectors of disease transmission, the number of men who work independently through Internet chat-rooms and other online endeavors has steadily increased. It is likely that these men differ substantially from their street-based counterparts in terms of sexual risk behaviors with their clients. The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which the Internet has impacted the work of male escorts and their sexual practices with clients. Semi-structured qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys were administered to 46 such men. Less than half the men reported unprotected anal sex with clients. The qualitative data lend support to this finding, in that the majority talked about refusing any unsafe sex with clients, and many reported taking the extra step of educating their clients about the dangers of risky sex. Some of the escorts described the methods used to incorporate safer sex practices into sessions with their clients. Internet-based male escorts can play an important role as potential sex educators on the front lines of the fight against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                sc
                Salud colectiva
                Salud colect.
                Universidad Nacional de Lanús (Lanús, Buenos Aires, Argentina )
                1851-8265
                June 2017
                : 13
                : 2
                : 199-210
                Affiliations
                orgnameUniversidade do Porto Portugal jllf@ 123456fpce.up.pt
                orgnameUniversidade do Porto Portugal oliveira@ 123456fpce.up.pt
                Article
                S1851-82652017000200199
                10.18294/sc.2017.1205

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 12
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