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      Benzoylphenyl ureas as veterinary antiparasitics. An overview and outlook with emphasis on efficacy, usage and resistance Translated title: Benzoylphenyl urées comme antiparasitaires vétérinaires. Vue d’ensemble et perspectives avec accent sur leur efficacité, usage et résistance

      1 , * , 2 , 3 , 3

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Diflubenzuron, Fluazuron, Lufenuron, Novaluron, Teflubenzuron, Triflumuron

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          Abstract

          Six benzoylphenyl ureas are currently used in formulations approved as veterinary medicines: diflubenzuron for fly control mainly on cattle, lice and blowfly strike control on sheep, and lice control on farmed salmonids; lufenuron for flea control on dogs and cats and for lice control on farmed salmonids; triflumuron for lice and blowfly strike control on sheep; fluazuron for tick control on cattle; teflubenzuron for lice control on farmed salmon; and novaluron for fly and tick control on cattle and for flea control on dogs. Resistance to diflubenzuron and triflumuron has already been reported for sheep body lice and blowflies, and to fluazuron in cattle ticks. These and other minor veterinary usages, as well as the current status of resistance, are reviewed and perspectives for future opportunities are discussed based on unexplored potentials and threats posed by future resistance development.

          Translated abstract

          Six benzoylphenyl urées sont actuellement utilisées dans des formulations approuvées comme médicaments vétérinaires : diflubenzuron contre les mouches des bovins, les poux et les myiases par calliphorides des ovins, et les poux dans le saumon d’élevage ; lufenuron contre les puces des chiens et chats et contre les poux dans le saumon d’élevage ; triflumuron contre les poux et les myiases par calliphorides des ovins ; fluazuron contre les tiques des bovins ; teflubenzuron contre les poux dans le saumon d’élevage ; et novaluron contre les mouches et les tiques des bovins, et contre les puces des chiens et chats. La résistance au diflubenzuron et triflumuron a déjà été rapportée pour le pou et les calliphorides des moutons, et au fluazuron pour les tiques des bovins. Le présent article résume ces usages vétérinaires et d’autres utilisations mineures ainsi que le développement de résistance, et discute les perspectives d’usage futur sur la base des potentiels non exploités et des menaces dues au développement future de résistance.

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          Most cited references 241

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          The global economic cost of sea lice to the salmonid farming industry.

           Mark Costello (2009)
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            Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture.

            Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites with vast reproductive potential and affect a wide variety of fish species. The number of parasites causing morbidity is proportional to fish size. Natural low host density restricts massive parasite dispersal. However, expanded salmon farming has shifted the conditions in favor of the parasite. Salmon farms are often situated near wild salmonid migrating routes, with smolts being particularly vulnerable to sea lice infestation. In order to protect both farmed and wild salmonids passing or residing in the proximity of the farms, several measures are taken. Medicinal treatment of farmed fish has been the most predictable and efficacious, leading to extensive use of the available compounds. This has resulted in drug-resistant parasites occurring on farmed and possibly wild salmonids.
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              The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Life Cycle Has Only Two Chalimus Stages

              Each year the salmon louse ( Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L . salmonis . Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2019
                01 May 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Vetparcs GmbH Zürich 8044 Switzerland
                [2 ] Elanco Australasia Pty. Limited Kemps Creek 2178 NSW Australia
                [3 ] Elanco Canada Limited 150 Research Lane, Suite 120 Guelph ON N1G 4T2 Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: pjunquera@ 123456vetparcs.ch
                Article
                parasite190003 10.1051/parasite/2019026
                10.1051/parasite/2019026
                6492539
                31041897
                © P. Junquera et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 294, Pages: 33
                Categories
                Review Article

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