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      Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: The functions of social exclusion.

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      Psychological Bulletin

      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Abstract

          A reconceptualization of stigma is presented that changes the emphasis from the devaluation of an individual's identity to the process by which individuals who satisfy certain criteria come to be excluded from various kinds of social interactions. The authors propose that phenomena currently placed under the general rubric of stigma involve a set of distinct psychological systems designed by natural selection to solve specific problems associated with sociality. In particular, the authors suggest that human beings possess cognitive adaptations designed to cause them to avoid poor social exchange partners, join cooperative groups (for purposes of between-group competition and exploitation), and avoid contact with those who are differentially likely to carry communicable pathogens. The evolutionary view contributes to the current conceptualization of stigma by providing an account of the ultimate function of stigmatization and helping to explain its consensual nature.

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          Most cited references 178

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          The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I.

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            The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation.

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              The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychological Bulletin
                Psychological Bulletin
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-1455
                0033-2909
                2001
                2001
                : 127
                : 2
                : 187-208
                Article
                10.1037/0033-2909.127.2.187
                11316010
                © 2001

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