Bernabé F. F Chumpitazi 1 , Pierre Flori 2 , 7 , Jean-Baptiste Kern 1 , Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart 1 , 6 , Sylvie Larrat 3 , 6 , Clémence Minet 4 , Laurence Bouillet 5 , 6 , Danièle Maubon 1 , 6 , Hervé Pelloux 1 , 6
1 December 2014
When diagnosing Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), the clinical suspicion must be confirmed by laboratory tests. PJP is rarely described in patients with idiopathic CD4 + lymphocytopenia (ICL), a rare T-cell deficiency of unknown origin with persistently low levels of CD4 + T-cells (<300 µl −1 or <20 % of total lymphocytes) but repeated negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tests. We retrospectively analysed a case of an ICL patient with severe PJP associated with multiple opportunistic infections (OIs). We also reviewed the literature since 1986.
A laboratory-confirmed case of PJP associated with invasive candidiasis and cytomegalovirus infection was reported in an ICL patient. Despite early treatment, the patient died of respiratory failure under polymicrobial pneumonia. According to the literature, the mortality rate of ICL patients is 10.4 % (33/316). In ICL patients, the risk of OI is 83.2 % (263/316), with viral infections being the most prevalent (58.2 %, 184/316), followed by fungal infections (52.2 %, 165/316) and mycobacterial infections (15.5 %, 49/316). Dysimmunity is reported in 15.5 % (49/316) of ICL patients. Among the fungal infections, cryptococcal infections are the most prevalent (24.1 %, 76/316), followed by candidiasis (15.5 %, 49/316) and PJP (7.9 %, 25/316).
The high risk of OIs underlines the importance of more vigorous preventative actions in hospitals. The response to therapy and the detection of early relapse of PJP may be monitored by several laboratory tests including quantitative PCR. It is essential to treat the ICL and to follow the guidelines concerning therapy and prophylaxis of OIs as given to HIV patients.