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      Genome-wide analysis captures the determinants of the antibiotic cross-resistance interaction network

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          Abstract

          Understanding how evolution of antimicrobial resistance increases resistance to other drugs is a challenge of profound importance. By combining experimental evolution and genome sequencing of 63 laboratory-evolved lines, we charted a map of cross-resistance interactions between antibiotics in Escherichia coli, and explored the driving evolutionary principles. Here, we show that (1) convergent molecular evolution is prevalent across antibiotic treatments, (2) resistance conferring mutations simultaneously enhance sensitivity to many other drugs and (3) 27% of the accumulated mutations generate proteins with compromised activities, suggesting that antibiotic adaptation can partly be achieved without gain of novel function. By using knowledge on antibiotic properties, we examined the determinants of cross-resistance and identified chemogenomic profile similarity between antibiotics as the strongest predictor. In contrast, cross-resistance between two antibiotics is independent of whether they show synergistic effects in combination. These results have important implications on the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

          Abstract

          Understanding how evolution of antimicrobial resistance increases resistance to other drugs is of key importance. Here, Lazar et al. build a map of cross-resistance interactions between antibiotics in Escherichia coli and show that chemical and genomic similarities are good predictors of bacterial cross-resistance.

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          Most cited references 38

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          The comprehensive antibiotic resistance database.

          The field of antibiotic drug discovery and the monitoring of new antibiotic resistance elements have yet to fully exploit the power of the genome revolution. Despite the fact that the first genomes sequenced of free living organisms were those of bacteria, there have been few specialized bioinformatic tools developed to mine the growing amount of genomic data associated with pathogens. In particular, there are few tools to study the genetics and genomics of antibiotic resistance and how it impacts bacterial populations, ecology, and the clinic. We have initiated development of such tools in the form of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca). The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences. This unique platform provides an informatic tool that bridges antibiotic resistance concerns in health care, agriculture, and the environment.
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            Programming cells by multiplex genome engineering and accelerated evolution.

            The breadth of genomic diversity found among organisms in nature allows populations to adapt to diverse environments. However, genomic diversity is difficult to generate in the laboratory and new phenotypes do not easily arise on practical timescales. Although in vitro and directed evolution methods have created genetic variants with usefully altered phenotypes, these methods are limited to laborious and serial manipulation of single genes and are not used for parallel and continuous directed evolution of gene networks or genomes. Here, we describe multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE) for large-scale programming and evolution of cells. MAGE simultaneously targets many locations on the chromosome for modification in a single cell or across a population of cells, thus producing combinatorial genomic diversity. Because the process is cyclical and scalable, we constructed prototype devices that automate the MAGE technology to facilitate rapid and continuous generation of a diverse set of genetic changes (mismatches, insertions, deletions). We applied MAGE to optimize the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) biosynthesis pathway in Escherichia coli to overproduce the industrially important isoprenoid lycopene. Twenty-four genetic components in the DXP pathway were modified simultaneously using a complex pool of synthetic DNA, creating over 4.3 billion combinatorial genomic variants per day. We isolated variants with more than fivefold increase in lycopene production within 3 days, a significant improvement over existing metabolic engineering techniques. Our multiplex approach embraces engineering in the context of evolution by expediting the design and evolution of organisms with new and improved properties.
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              The Chemistry Development Kit (CDK): An Open-Source Java Library for Chemo-and Bioinformatics

              The Chemistry Development Kit (CDK) is a freely available open-source Java library for Structural Chemo-and Bioinformatics. Its architecture and capabilities as well as the development as an open-source project by a team of international collaborators from academic and industrial institutions is described. The CDK provides methods for many common tasks in molecular informatics, including 2D and 3D rendering of chemical structures, I/O routines, SMILES parsing and generation, ring searches, isomorphism checking, structure diagram generation, etc. Application scenarios as well as access information for interested users and potential contributors are given.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Pub. Group
                2041-1723
                08 July 2014
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Centre , Temesvari krt 62, Szeged 6726, Hungary
                [2 ]Sequencing Platform, Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Centre , Temesvari krt 62, Szeged 6726, Hungary
                [3 ]MTA-SZTE Research Group on Artificial Intelligence , Tisza Lajos krt 103., H-6720 Szeged, Hungary
                [4 ]Linear Accelerator Laboratory, University of Paris-Sud, CNRS , Orsay 91898, France
                [5 ]These authors contributed equally to this work
                Author notes
                Article
                ncomms5352
                10.1038/ncomms5352
                4102323
                25000950
                Copyright © 2014, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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