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      Time-dependent effect of combination therapy with erythropoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

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          Abstract

          Erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte colonystimulating factor (G-CSF) are likely to play broad roles in the brain. We investigated the effects of combination therapy with EPO and G-CSF in hypoxicischemic brain injury during the acute, subacute, and chronic phases. A total of 79 C57BL/6 mice with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury were randomly assigned acute (days 1–5), subacute (days 11–15) and chronic (days 28–32) groups. All of them were treated with G-CSF (250 μg/kg) and EPO (5 000 U/kg) or saline daily for 5 consecutive days. Behavioral assessments and immunohistochemistry for angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and astrogliosis were performed with an 8-week follow-up. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was also measured by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the combination therapy with EPO and G-CSF in the acute phase significantly improved rotarod performance and forelimb-use symmetry compared to the other groups, while subacute EPO and G-CSF therapy exhibited a modest improvement compared with the chronic saline controls. The acute treatment significantly increased the density of CD31 + (PECAM-1) and α-smooth muscle actin + vessels in the frontal cortex and striatum, increased BrdU +/PSANCAM + neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, and decreased astroglial density in the striatum. Furthermore, acute treatment significantly increased the HIF-1 expression in the cytosol and nucleus, whereas chronic treatment did not change the HIF-1 expression, consistent with the behavioral outcomes. These results indicate that the induction of HIF-1 expression by combination therapy with EPO and G-CSF synergistically enhances not only behavioral function but also neurogenesis and angiogenesis while decreasing the astroglial response in a timedependent manner.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          srcho918@yuhs.ac
          Journal
          Neurosci Bull
          Neurosci Bull
          Neuroscience Bulletin
          Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
          1673-7067
          1995-8218
          16 January 2014
          February 2014
          : 30
          : 1
          : 107-117
          Affiliations
          [1 ] GRID grid.15444.30, ISNI 0000000404705454, Department and Research Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, , Yonsei University College of Medicine, ; Seoul, Korea
          [2 ] GRID grid.15444.30, ISNI 0000000404705454, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, , Yonsei University, ; Seoul, Korea
          [3 ] GRID grid.15444.30, ISNI 0000000404705454, Graduate Program of Nano Science and Technology, , Yonsei University, ; Seoul, Korea
          [4 ] GRID grid.15444.30, ISNI 0000000404705454, Department of Anatomy, , Yonsei University College of Medicine, ; Seoul, Korea
          [5 ] GRID grid.15444.30, ISNI 0000000404705454, Department of Neurology, , Yonsei University College of Medicine, ; Seoul, Korea
          [6 ] GRID grid.15444.30, ISNI 0000000404705454, Yonsei Stem Cell Center, Avison Biomedical Research Center, , Yonsei University College of Medicine, ; Seoul, Korea
          [7 ] GRID grid.15444.30, ISNI 0000000404705454, Rehabilitation Institute of Neuromuscular Disease, , Yonsei University College of Medicine, ; Seoul, Korea
          Article
          PMC5562580 PMC5562580 5562580 1397
          10.1007/s12264-013-1397-9
          5562580
          24435306
          © Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014
          Categories
          Original Article
          Custom metadata
          © Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

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