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      Is Open Access

      Retrograde apoptotic signaling by the p75 neurotrophin receptor

      ,

      Neuronal Signaling

      Portland Press Ltd.

      apoptosis, axonal transport, JNK, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin, NRIF

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          Abstract

          Neurotrophins are target-derived factors necessary for mammalian nervous system development and maintenance. They are typically produced by neuronal target tissues and interact with their receptors at axonal endings. Therefore, locally generated neurotrophin signals must be conveyed from the axon back to the cell soma. Retrograde survival signaling by neurotrophin binding to Trk receptors has been extensively studied. However, neurotrophins also bind to the p75 receptor, which can induce apoptosis in a variety of contexts. Selective activation of p75 at distal axon ends has been shown to generate a retrograde apoptotic signal, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The present review summarizes the available evidence for retrograde proapoptotic signaling in general and the role of the p75 receptor in particular, with discussion of unanswered questions in the field. In-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of retrograde apoptotic signaling is essential for understanding the etiology of neurodegeneration in many diseases and injuries.

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          Most cited references 79

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          Rab5 and Rab7 control endocytic sorting along the axonal retrograde transport pathway.

          Vesicular pathways coupling the neuromuscular junction with the motor neuron soma are essential for neuronal function and survival. To characterize the organelles responsible for this long-distance crosstalk, we developed a purification strategy based on a fragment of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT H(C)) conjugated to paramagnetic beads. This approach enabled us to identify, among other factors, the small GTPase Rab7 as a functional marker of a specific pool of axonal retrograde carriers, which transport neurotrophins and their receptors. Furthermore, Rab5 is essential for an early step in TeNT H(C) sorting but is absent from axonally transported vesicles. Our data demonstrate that TeNT H(C) uses a retrograde transport pathway shared with p75(NTR), TrkB, and BDNF, which is strictly dependent on the activities of both Rab5 and Rab7. Therefore, Rab7 plays an essential role in axonal retrograde transport by controlling a vesicular compartment implicated in neurotrophin traffic.
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            Assembly of a new growth cone after axotomy: the precursor to axon regeneration.

            The assembly of a new growth cone is a prerequisite for axon regeneration after injury. Creation of a new growth cone involves multiple processes, including calcium signalling, restructuring of the cytoskeleton, transport of materials, local translation of messenger RNAs and the insertion of new membrane and cell surface molecules. In axons that have an intrinsic ability to regenerate, these processes are executed in a timely fashion. However, in axons that lack regenerative capacity, such as those of the mammalian CNS, several of the steps that are required for regeneration fail, and these axons do not begin the growth process. Identification of the points of failure can suggest targets for promoting regeneration.
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              Dual leucine zipper kinase is required for retrograde injury signaling and axonal regeneration.

              Here we demonstrate that the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) promotes robust regeneration of peripheral axons after nerve injury in mice. Peripheral axon regeneration is accelerated by prior injury; however, DLK KO neurons do not respond to a preconditioning lesion with enhanced regeneration in vivo or in vitro. Assays for activation of transcription factors in injury-induced proregenerative pathways reveal that loss of DLK abolishes upregulation of p-STAT3 and p-cJun in the cell body after axonal injury. DLK is not required for the phosphorylation of STAT3 at the site of nerve injury but is necessary for retrograde transport of p-STAT3 to the cell body. These data demonstrate that DLK enhances regeneration by promoting a retrograde injury signal that is required for the activation of the neuronal proregenerative program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Neuronal Signal
                Neuronal Signal
                ns
                Neuronal Signaling
                Portland Press Ltd.
                2059-6553
                February 2017
                24 February 2017
                : 1
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Department of Biochemistry and Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, U.S.A.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Bruce D. Carter ( bruce.carter@ 123456vanderbilt.edu )
                Article
                NS20160007
                10.1042/NS20160007
                7373242
                © 2017 The Author(s).

                This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).

                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Product
                Categories
                Review Articles
                Cell Death & Injury
                Signaling
                Neuroscience

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