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Major dietary patterns in Iranian adolescents: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran

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      Abstract

      BACKGROUNDLimited information exists from the dietary pattern of children and adolescents particularly in developing countries. We aimed to detect major dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic characteristics of Iranian adolescents.METHODSHealthy Heart Promotion from Childhood as one of the “Isfahan Healthy Heart Program”, Iran, projects was conducted in adolescents aged 11-18 years in Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak districts, Iran, selected randomly by multistage sampling. This survey was conducted on 1992 adolescents in 2007. Dietary intake was assessed using a 50-item food frequency questionnaire in both communities.RESULTSFour major dietary patterns labeled “prudent diet,” fast food diet,” “animal fat diet,” and “Mediterranean diet” were identified. We found a significant inverse relationship between prudent and animal fat dietary patterns with age, prudent and Mediterranean dietary patterns with being boy. However, a positive relationship between fast food dietary pattern and age; fast food and animal fat dietary patterns with being boy were detected (all P < 0.05). While urbanization and TV watching correlated positively with the fast food diet, an inverse relationship between urbanization and animal fat and Mediterranean dietary patterns were found (all P < 0.01). The animal fat and fast food dietary patterns inversely associated with nutrition knowledge; however, Mediterranean diet had a positive relationship with it (all P < 0.05). Membership in sport team was positively related to all dietary pattern and regular physical activity associated only with prudent diet (all P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONThe study suggests that socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity are related to dietary patterns in Iranian adolescents.

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      Consistent dietary patterns identified from childhood to adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study.

      Dietary patterns are useful in nutritional epidemiology, providing a comprehensive alternative to the traditional approach based on single nutrients. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up. At baseline, detailed quantitative information on subjects' food consumption was obtained using a 48 h dietary recall method (n 1768, aged 3-18 years). The interviews were repeated after 6 and 21 years (n 1200 and n 1037, respectively). We conducted a principal component analysis to identify major dietary patterns at each study point. A set of two similar patterns was recognised throughout the study. Pattern 1 was positively correlated with consumption of traditional Finnish foods, such as rye, potatoes, milk, butter, sausages and coffee, and negatively correlated with fruit, berries and dairy products other than milk. Pattern 1 type of diet was more common among male subjects, smokers and those living in rural areas. Pattern 2, predominant among female subjects, non-smokers and in urban areas, was characterised by more health-conscious food choices such as vegetables, legumes and nuts, tea, rye, cheese and other dairy products, and also by consumption of alcoholic beverages. Tracking of the pattern scores was observed, particularly among subjects who were adolescents at baseline. Of those originally belonging to the uppermost quintile of pattern 1 and 2 scores, 41 and 38 % respectively, persisted in the same quintile 21 years later. Our results suggest that food behaviour and concrete food choices are established already in childhood or adolescence and may significantly track into adulthood.
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        Application of a new statistical method to derive dietary patterns in nutritional epidemiology.

        Because foods are consumed in combination, it is difficult in observational studies to separate the effects of single foods on the development of diseases. A possible way to examine the combined effect of food intakes is to derive dietary patterns by using appropriate statistical methods. The objective of this study was to apply a new statistical method, reduced rank regression (RRR), that is more flexible and powerful than the classic principal component analysis. RRR can be used efficiently in nutritional epidemiology by choosing disease-specific response variables and determining combinations of food intake that explain as much response variation as possible. The authors applied RRR to extract dietary patterns from 49 food groups, specifying four diabetes-related nutrients and nutrient ratios as responses. Data were derived from a nested German case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study consisting of 193 cases with incident type 2 diabetes identified until 2001 and 385 controls. The four factors extracted by RRR explained 93.1% of response variation, whereas the first four factors obtained by principal component analysis accounted for only 41.9%. In contrast to principal component analysis and other methods, the new RRR method extracted a significant risk factor for diabetes.
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          Longitudinal changes in diet from childhood into adulthood with respect to risk of cardiovascular diseases: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

          To assess nutrient intakes relevant in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among young adults in Finland and to find past and present determinants of quality of diet. Prospective study, 21 years of follow-up. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, Finland. At baseline in 1980: 3569 children aged 3-18 y participated (83% of those invited), and every second of them (1780) were selected to the dietary study. At follow-ups in 1986 and 2001: 1200 and 1037 of the original sample, respectively, participated. Food consumption was assessed using 48-h dietary recall. Intakes in 2001 were compared with those obtained in 1980 and 1986. Nutrients selected for further examination were those implicated in the risk of CVD: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids, fibre and salt. An index describing the quality of adulthood diet was constructed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent childhood and adulthood determinants of the quality index. The average intakes showed substantial changes since 1980. Intakes of fat and saturated fat had decreased, while the consumption of vegetables and fruit had increased. However, a great disparity was present between the recommended levels and actual intakes for many of the nutrients, particularly salt, saturated fat and fibre. Intake of fat and consumption of vegetables in childhood and physical activity in adulthood were important health behavioural determinants of the cardiovascular quality of the adult diet. Socio-demographic factors, including education of the subject and their parents, had no significant associations with diet. While intakes of energy and nutrients have changed favourably in Finnish young adults between 1980 and 2001 with regard to the risk of CVD, they are still far from recommended levels. Childhood diet is a significant determinant of adult diet even after 21 y. This study was supported by the Academy of Finland (grant 77841) and Juho Vainio Foundation.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Food Security Research Center AND Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
            [2 ]Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
            [3 ]Heart Failure Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
            Author notes
            Correspondence to: Noushin Mohammadifard, Email: mohammadifard@ 123456crc.mui.ac.ir
            Journal
            ARYA Atheroscler
            ARYA Atheroscler
            ARYA
            ARYA Atherosclerosis
            Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
            1735-3955
            2251-6638
            February 2015
            : 11
            : Suppl 1
            : 61-8
            4530660
            ARYA-11-061
            © 2015 Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center & Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

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            Original Article

            Orthopedics

            socio demographic factors, diet, adolescent

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