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      Los estreptomices: Actualización y revisión didáctica

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          Abstract

          Los autores presentan un trabajo de actualización y revisión del conocimiento actual sobre los estreptomices, género que pertenece al orden de los actinomicetales. Son presentados y discutidos aspectos relacionados con la identificación, la quimiotaxonomía, la diferenciación de las especies, la biología molecular, la epidemiología, la clínica y el tratamiento. A través de la discusión de los aspectos arriba señalados, los autores presentan, de una manera fácil y concisa, una revisión fundamentalmente orientada al conocimiento actual de los aspectos biomédicos y de las metodologías más adecuadas para el estudio de este género, el cual es de difícil diagnóstico y clasificación. Los autores llaman la atención sobre la reciente emergencia de los estreptomices como agentes patógenos en infecciones sistémicas o localizadas, distintas al actinomicetoma.

          Translated abstract

          The authors present a review on the state of the art of the genus Streptomyces, this genus belong to the order of the actinomycetes. In this work the authors review aspects related to: identification, quimiotaxonomy, species differentiation, molecular biology, epidemiology, clinical and treatment. This review up dated all those above mention topics which cover aspects very useful to understand and study this particularly difficult genus. The authors call the attention to the recently emergence of some species of Streptomycesas etiologic agents of human systemic infection.

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          Most cited references33

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          The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

          The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes.
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            Streptomyces pneumonia in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: case report and review of the literature on invasive streptomyces infections.

            Streptomyces species are most widely known for their production of antimicrobial substances and, apart from mycetoma, have rarely been reported as a cause of infection. We describe a patient with early human immunodeficiency virus infection who presented with fever, cough, and nodular pulmonary infiltrates. Open lung biopsy revealed necrotic tissue and a sulfur granule; aerobic bacterial cultures yielded Streptomyces species. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin for 6 months. We review the clinical presentation and treatment of invasive streptomyces infections.
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              Rapid identification of clinically significant species and taxa of aerobic actinomycetes, including Actinomadura, Gordona, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces, and Tsukamurella isolates, by DNA amplification and restriction endonuclease analysis.

              A previously described PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) identification schema for Nocardia that used an amplified 439-bp segment (amplicon) of the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene was evaluated for potential use with isolates of all clinically significant aerobic actinomycetes. The study included 28 reference (American Type Culture Collection) strains and 198 clinical isolates belonging to 20 taxonomic groups. Of these 198 isolates, 188 could be differentiated by this PCR-RFLP method. Amplicons from all aerobic actinomycete isolates lacked BstEII recognition sites, thereby distinguishing them from those of mycobacteria that contain one or more such sites. Of 29 restriction endonucleases, MspI plus HinfI produced RFLP patterns that differentiated 16 of the 20 taxa. A single RFLP pattern was observed for 15 of 20 taxa that included 65% of phenotypically clustered isolates. Multiple patterns were seen with Gordona bronchialis, Nocardia asteroides complex type VI, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia transvalensis, and Streptomyces spp. Streptomyces RFLP patterns were the most heterogeneous (five patterns among 19 isolates), but exhibited a unique HinfI fragment of > 320 bp. RFLP patterns that matched those from type strains of Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces griseus, or Streptomyces somaliensis were obtained from 14 of 19 Streptomyces isolates. Only 10 of 28 isolates of N. otitidiscaviarum failed to yield satisfactory amplicons, while only 6 of 188 (3.2%) clinical isolates exhibited patterns that failed to match one of the 21 defined RFLP patterns. These studies extended the feasibility of using PCR-RFLP analysis as a rapid method for the identification of all clinically significant species and taxa of aerobic actinomycetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rsvm
                Revista de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología
                Rev. Soc. Ven. Microbiol.
                Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología. (Caracas, DF, Venezuela )
                1315-2556
                January 2001
                : 21
                : 1
                : 36-38
                Affiliations
                [01] orgnameFaculte de Pharmacie orgdiv1Laboratorie de Mycologie
                [02] orgnameUnuiversity of Newcastle upon Tyne orgdiv1Faculty of Agriculture & Environmental
                [04] Mérida orgnameUniversidad de los Andes orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Departamento de Patologia Venezuela
                [03] Mérida orgnameUniversidad de los Andes orgdiv1Facultad de Farmacia orgdiv2Escuela de Bionalisis Venezuela
                Article
                S1315-25562001000100006 S1315-2556(01)02100106
                dd8a4475-2dc8-4d05-8e30-56e0dc0d5652

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 25, Pages: 3
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Categories
                Investigaciones Originales y Otras Modalidades de Publicación

                Streptomyces,actinomicetales,taxonomía,patogenicidad
                Streptomyces, actinomicetales, taxonomía, patogenicidad

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