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      Hyperinfection strongyloidiasis: an anticipated outbreak in kidney transplant recipients in Kuwait.

      Transplantation Proceedings

      Adult, Anthelmintics, therapeutic use, Cadaver, Disease Outbreaks, Female, Humans, Kidney Transplantation, Kuwait, Male, Middle Aged, Postoperative Complications, parasitology, Strongyloidiasis, epidemiology, mortality, Tissue Donors

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          Hyperinfection strongyloidiasis is a potentially fatal syndrome associated with conditions of depressed host cellular immunity. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect cases early and thereby avoid a fatal outcome. Three consecutive cadaveric kidney transplant recipients died within 2 months from hyperinfections with strongyloides. All members of the transplant team were involved in a campaign to localize the source of infection, identify and treat affected patients, and provide adequate prophylaxis to other transplant recipients. We reviewed cadaveric donor files and screened 61 hospital personnel, 27 hospital inpatients, and the 87 hospital outpatients transplanted in a year's time before that event for a possible source. The screening test included analysis of fresh stool samples on 3 consecutive days for strongyloides larvae. The anti-helminthic drug albendazol was administered to all patients during screening. They were followed for possible development of the disease during the infectivity period. The first 2 recipients received their kidneys from 1 cadaveric donor, while the third received it from a different donor. Both donors came from areas endemic for strongyloidiasis. The 3 recipients were on tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. The twin recipient of the second kidney was on cyclosporine and did not manifest a disease. All stool samples taken for screening were negative for the infective larvae. None of the other recipients developed the disease. Cadaveric donors were the possible source for this outbreak. Cyclosporine probably has a protective effect against strongyloides. In our setting, screening of cadaveric donors for strongyloides is mandatory before accepting them for donation, and oral prophylaxis is required for all recipients.

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