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      Modeling the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin on self-reported changes in sleep disturbances in outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder managed in routine clinical practice

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          Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being one of the most common. Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in GAD patients. While treatment with pregabalin has been found to be associated with significant improvement in GAD-related sleep disturbance across many controlled clinical trials, mediational analysis has suggested that a substantial portion of this effect could be the result of a direct effect of pregabalin. Thus, the objective of this study was to model the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin or usual care (UC) therapies on changes in sleep in outpatients with GAD under routine clinical practice.


          Male and female GAD outpatients, aged 18 years or above, from a 6-month prospective noninterventional trial were analyzed. Direct and indirect effects of either pregabalin or UC changes in anxiety symptoms (assessed with Hamilton Anxiety Scale) and sleep disturbances (assessed with Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale [MOS-S]) were estimated by a conditional latent curve model applying structural equation modeling.


          A total of 1,546 pregabalin-naïve patients were analyzed, 984 receiving pregabalin and 562 UC. Both symptoms of anxiety and sleep disturbances were significantly improved in both groups, with higher mean (95% confidence interval) score reductions in subjects receiving pregabalin: −15.9 (−15.2; −16.6) vs −14.5 (−13.5; −15.5), P=0.027, in Hamilton Anxiety Scale; and −29.7 (−28.1; −31.3) vs −24.0 (−21.6; −26.4), P<0.001, in MOS-S. The conditional latent curve model showed that the pregabalin effect on sleep disturbances was significant (γ =−3.99, P<0.001), after discounting the effect on reduction in anxiety symptoms. A mediation model showed that 70% of the direct effect of pregabalin on sleep remained after discounting the mediated effect of anxiety improvement.


          A substantial proportion of the incremental improvements in anxiety-related sleep disturbances with pregabalin vs UC were explained by its direct effect, not mediated by improvements in anxiety symptoms.

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          Axis I psychiatric comorbidity and its relationship to historical illness variables in 288 patients with bipolar disorder.

          Bipolar disorder often co-occurs with other axis I disorders, but little is known about the relationships between the clinical features of bipolar illness and these comorbid conditions. Therefore, the authors assessed comorbid lifetime and current axis I disorders in 288 patients with bipolar disorder and the relationships of these comorbid disorders to selected demographic and historical illness variables. They evaluated 288 outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder, using structured diagnostic interviews and clinician-administered and self-rated questionnaires to determine the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, comorbid axis I disorder diagnoses, and demographic and historical illness characteristics. One hundred eighty-seven (65%) of the patients with bipolar disorder also met DSM-IV criteria for at least one comorbid lifetime axis I disorder. More patients had comorbid anxiety disorders (N=78, 42%) and substance use disorders (N=78, 42%) than had eating disorders (N=9, 5%). There were no differences in comorbidity between patients with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder. Both lifetime axis I comorbidity and current axis I comorbidity were associated with earlier age at onset of affective symptoms and syndromal bipolar disorder. Current axis I comorbidity was associated with a history of development of both cycle acceleration and more severe episodes over time. Patients with bipolar disorder often have comorbid anxiety, substance use, and, to a lesser extent, eating disorders. Moreover, axis I comorbidity, especially current comorbidity, may be associated with an earlier age at onset and worsening course of bipolar illness. Further research into the prognostic and treatment response implications of axis I comorbidity in bipolar disorder is important and is in progress.
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              Pregabalin for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a 4-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin and alprazolam.

              Pregabalin inhibits release of excess excitatory neurotransmitters, presumably by binding to the alpha2-delta subunit protein of widely distributed voltage-dependent calcium channels in the brain and spinal cord. To assess the anxiolytic efficacy of pregabalin in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator trial. Patients were randomized to 4 weeks of treatment with pregabalin, 300 mg/d (n = 91), 450 mg/d (n = 90), or 600 mg/d (n = 89); alprazolam, 1.5 mg/d (n = 93); or placebo (n = 91). Psychiatry research and clinic settings. Outpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, with a baseline Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) total score of 20 or greater. Change from baseline to end point in total HAM-A score in the pregabalin and alprazolam groups compared with the placebo group. The end point response criterion was 50% or greater reduction in the HAM-A total score. Pregabalin and alprazolam produced a significantly greater reduction in mean +/- SE HAM-A total score at last-observation-carried-forward end point compared with placebo (-8.4 +/- 0.8): pregabalin, 300 mg (-12.2 +/- 0.8, P<.001), 450 mg (-11.0 +/- 0.8, P = .02), and 600 mg (-11.8 +/- 0.8, P = .002), and alprazolam (-10.9 +/- 0.8, P = .02). By week 1 and at last-observation-carried-forward end point, the 3 pregabalin groups and the alprazolam group had significantly (P<.01) improved HAM-A psychic anxiety symptoms compared with the placebo group. Compared with the placebo group, HAM-A somatic anxiety symptoms were also significantly (P<.02) improved by the 300- and 600-mg pregabalin groups, but not by the 450-mg pregabalin (week 1, P = .06; week 4, P = .32) and the alprazolam groups (week 1, P = .21; week 4, P = .15). Of the 5 treatment groups, the 300-mg pregabalin group was the only medication group that differed statistically in global improvement at treatment end point not only from the placebo group but also from the alprazolam group. Pregabalin was significantly more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of psychic and somatic symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and was well tolerated by most study patients.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                06 August 2015
                : 9
                : 4329-4340
                [1 ]Department of Methodology, School of Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau, Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ]Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
                [4 ]Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Meixoeiro, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Vigo, Spain
                [5 ]Medical Department, Pfizer, S.L.U., Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain
                [6 ]Health Economics and Outcomes Research Department, Pfizer, S.L.U., Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Miguel A Ruiz, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle Ivan Pavlov 6, 28049 Madrid, Spain, Tel +34 91 497 5211, Fax +34 91 497 5215, Email miguel.ruiz@ 123456uam.es
                © 2015 Ruiz et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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