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      SET protein up-regulated testosterone production in the cultured preantral follicles


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          We found previously that the expression of SET gene was up-regulated in polycystic ovaries. Evidences suggested that SET protein was essential for regulating both the promoter activity of CYP17A1 and the biological activity of P450c17. In this study, we explored whether SET regulated androgen production in preantral follicles.


          The mouse preantral follicles were cultured in vitro. Testosterone secretion and expression of steroidogenic enzymes were observed in the preantral follicles treated in vitro by SET overexpression and knockdown.


          Testosterone levels in the media of the AdCMV-SET infected follicles significantly increased, and the CYP17A1 and HSD3B2 expression also significantly increased ( P < 0.05). Testosterone levels in AdSiRNA-SET infected group decreased, and so did CYP17A1 and HSD3B2 expression ( P < 0.05).


          SET played a positive role in regulating ovarian androgen biosynthesis by enhancing the transcription of steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1 and HSD3B2, which maybe contribute to the hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

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          Most cited references 34

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          A simplified system for generating recombinant adenoviruses.

          Recombinant adenoviruses provide a versatile system for gene expression studies and therapeutic applications. We report herein a strategy that simplifies the generation and production of such viruses. A recombinant adenoviral plasmid is generated with a minimum of enzymatic manipulations, using homologous recombination in bacteria rather than in eukaryotic cells. After transfections of such plasmids into a mammalian packaging cell line, viral production is conveniently followed with the aid of green fluorescent protein, encoded by a gene incorporated into the viral backbone. Homogeneous viruses can be obtained from this procedure without plaque purification. This system should expedite the process of generating and testing recombinant adenoviruses for a variety of purposes.
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            The myeloid leukemia-associated protein SET is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A.

             A Makkinje,  Z Damuni,  Miao Li (1996)
            Two potent heat-stable protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor proteins designated I1PP2A and I2PP2A have been purified to apparent homogeneity from extracts of bovine kidney (Li, M., Guo, H., and Damuni, Z. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 1988-1996). N-terminal and internal amino acid sequencing indicated that I2PP2A was a truncated form of SET, a largely nuclear protein that is fused to nucleoporin Nup214 in acute non-lymphocytic myeloid leukemia. Experiments using purified preparations of recombinant human SET confirmed that this protein inhibited PP2A. Half-maximal inhibition of the phosphatase occurred at about 2 nM SET. By contrast, SET (up to 20 nM) did not affect the activities of purified preparations of protein phosphatases 1, 2B, and 2C. The results indicate that SET is a potent and specific inhibitor of PP2A and suggest that impaired regulation of PP2A may contribute to acute myeloid leukemogenesis.
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              Regulation of histone acetylation and transcription by INHAT, a human cellular complex containing the set oncoprotein.

              Acetylation of histones by p300/CBP and PCAF is considered to be a critical step in transcriptional regulation. In order to understand the role of cellular activities that modulate histone acetylation and transcription, we have purified and characterized a multiprotein cellular complex that potently inhibits the histone acetyltransferase activity of p300/CBP and PCAF. We have mapped a novel acetyltransferase-inhibitory domain of this INHAT (inhibitor of acetyltransferases) complex that binds to histones and masks them from being acetyltransferase substrates. Endogenous INHAT subunits, which include the Set/TAF-Ibeta oncoprotein, associate with chromatin in vivo and can block coactivatormediated transcription when transfected in cells. We propose that histone masking by INHAT plays a regulatory role in chromatin modification and serves as a novel mechanism of transcriptional regulation.

                Author and article information

                Reprod Biol Endocrinol
                Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol
                Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E
                BioMed Central
                19 February 2013
                : 11
                : 9
                [1 ]The State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Clinical Center of Reproductive Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210011, China
                Copyright ©2013 Xu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


                Human biology

                set, androgen production, preantral follicles


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