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      Microbubble-mediated ultrasound therapy: a review of its potential in cancer treatment

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          The inherently toxic nature of chemotherapy drugs is essential for them to kill cancer cells but is also the source of the detrimental side effects experienced by patients. One strategy to reduce these side effects is to limit the healthy tissue exposure by encapsulating the drugs in a vehicle that demonstrates a very low leak rate in circulation while simultaneously having the potential for rapid release once inside the tumor. Designing a vehicle with these two opposing properties is the major challenge in the field of drug delivery. A triggering event is required to change the vehicle from its stable circulating state to its unstable release state. A unique mechanical actuation type trigger is possible by harnessing the size changes that occur when microbubbles interact with ultrasound. These mechanical actuations can burst liposomes and cell membranes alike allowing for rapid drug release and facilitating delivery into nearby cells. The tight focusing ability of the ultrasound to just a few cubic millimeters allows for precise control over the tissue location where the microbubbles destabilize the vehicles. This allows the ultrasound to highlight the tumor tissue and cause rapid drug release from any carrier present. Different vehicle designs have been demonstrated from carrying drug on just the surface of the microbubble itself to encapsulating the microbubble along with the drug within a liposome. In the future, nanoparticles may extend the circulation half-life of these ultrasound triggerable drug-delivery vehicles by acting as nucleation sites of ultrasound-induced mechanical actuation. In addition to the drug delivery capability, the microbubble size changes can also be used to create imaging contrast agents that could allow the internal chemical environment of a tumor to be studied to help improve the diagnosis and detection of cancer. The ability to attain truly tumor-specific release from circulating drug-delivery vehicles is an exciting future prospect to reduce chemotherapy side effects while increasing drug effectiveness.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Construction and applications of a highly transmissible murine retrovirus shuttle vector.

          We develop a murine retrovirus shuttle vector system for the efficient introduction of selectable and nonselectable DNA sequences into mammalian cells and recovery of the inserted sequences as molecular clones. Three protocols allow rapid recovery of vector DNA sequences from mammalian cells. Two of the methods rely on SV40 T-antigen-mediated replication of the vector sequences and yield thousands of bacterial transformants per 5 X 10(6) mammalian cells. The majority of plasmids recovered by all three protocols exhibited the proper structure and were as active as the parental vector in the generation of transmissible retrovirus genomes upon transfection of mammalian cells. One of the rescue methods, which relies on "onion skin" replication and excision of an integrated provirus from the host chromosome, enables facile recovery of the chromosomal site of proviral integration. The system was also used to generate, and then efficiently recover, a cDNA version of a genomic insert from the adenovirus E1A region.
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            Bioactivation of self-immolative dendritic prodrugs by catalytic antibody 38C2.

            Self-immolative dendrimers have recently been developed and introduced as a potential platform for a multi-prodrug. These unique structural dendrimers can release all of their tail units, through a self-immolative chain fragmentation, which is initiated by a single cleavage at the dendrimer's core. Incorporation of drug molecules as the tail units and an enzyme substrate as the trigger can generate a multi-prodrug unit that will be activated with a single enzymatic cleavage. We have synthesized the first generation of dendritic prodrugs with doxorubicin and camptothecin as tail units and a retro-aldol retro-Michael focal trigger, which can be cleaved by catalytic antibody 38C2. The bioactivation of the dendritic prodrugs was evaluated in cell-growth inhibition assay with the Molt-3 leukemia cell line in the presence and the absence of antibody 38C2. The dendritic unit was applied as a platform for a heterodimeric prodrug, which achieved a remarkable increase in toxicity with its bioactivation.
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              Correlation between acoustic cavitation noise and yield enhancement of sonochemical reaction by particle addition.

              The mechanism of the effect of particle addition on sonochemical reaction is studied through the measurements of frequency spectrum of sound intensity for evaluating the cavitation noise and the absorbance for the liberation of iodine from an aqueous solution of KI as an index of oxidation reaction by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence or absence of alumina particles. As it is expected that both the acoustic noise and a rise in temperature in the liquid irradiated by intense ultrasound will increase with the number of collapsing bubbles, these are supposed to be the best tools for evaluating the relative number of bubbles. In the present investigation, it has been shown that the addition of particles with appropriate amount and size results in an increase in the absorbance when both the acoustic noise and the rise in the liquid temperature due to cavitation bubbles also increase. This suggests that the enhancement in the yield of sonochemical reaction by appropriate particle addition comes from an increase in the number of cavitation bubbles. The existence of particle in liquid provides a nucleation site for cavitation bubble due to its surface roughness, leading to the decrease in the cavitation threshold responsible for the increase in the number of bubbles when the liquid is irradiated by ultrasound. Thus, from the present investigation, it is clarified that the particle addition has a potential to enhance the yield in the sonochemical reaction.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                03 May 2013
                : 7
                : 375-388
                [1 ]Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA;
                [2 ]Department of Bioengineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA;
                [3 ]Department of Nanoengineering, Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Stuart Ibsen, Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Dr # 0815, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0815, USA, Tel +1 858 534 9848, Fax +1 858 534 9830, Email sibsen@ 123456ucsd.edu
                © 2013 Ibsen et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.



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