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      Use of The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a conceptual framework and common language for disability statistics and health information systems

      , 1

      BMC Public Health

      BioMed Central

      What is disability? UN convention on the rights of persons with disability, eligibility criteria and the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health

      19-20 April 2010

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          Abstract

          A common framework for describing functional status information is needed in order to make this information comparable and of value. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which has been approved by all its member states, provides this common language and framework. The article provides an overview of ICF taxonomy, introduces the conceptual model which underpins ICF and elaborates on how ICF is used at population and clinical level. Furthermore, the article presents key features of the ICF tooling environment and outlines current and future developments of the classification.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Screening for serious mental illness: methodological studies of the K6 screening scale

          The K6 scale is a shortened version of the K10, a 10-question scale originally developed to provide an efficient population-level screen for serious mental disorders (SMI) in the USA. Evidence that the six-item shortened version performed as well as the original 10-item version, coupled with strong psychometric properties, led to rapid dissemination and replicated validation of the K6 in a number of other countries around the world. Based on these results, the K6 is now often included in large general-purpose government health tracking surveys in a number of different countries. Until now, though, the scoring rules for the K6 in these surveys were inconsistent. The first paper in this special issue introduces the K6 scale and summarizes the results of a series of investigations to resolve these inconsistencies by providing optimal scoring rules for the K6 in 14 countries. Subsequent papers explore the usefulness of the K6 to screen for serious emotional disturbance among adolescents and report findings from validation efforts based on independent diagnostic assessments as well as of other measures of impairment and disability (World Health organization Disability Assessment Scale). Finally a highly innovative analysis using a Bayesian multilevel modeling approach is presented, designed to estimate the prevalence of SMI in small areas, such as cities, states, or schools, from surveys carried out in a larger population that includes only relatively small samples of respondents in each of the areas in which prevalence estimates are to be made. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that the K6 is an efficient and useful screening tool. The psychometric and methodological explorations will hopefully stimulate additional interest in the use of short screening scales in large-scale general health surveys to supplement the more in-depth information obtained in periodic psychiatric epidemiological surveys on the basis of diagnostic interviews.
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            Disability, culture and the U.N. convention.

             J. Bickenbach (2008)
            Is the universality of human rights, such as those set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, incompatible with therapeutic strategies of respecting cultural differences? I show that universalism is essential to the notion of human rights, as well as the rarely explained, political slogan of 'the rights approach to disability'. Similarly, culture responsiveness is commonly defended by therapists. I argue that the conflict between universalism of rights and cultural sensitivity exist only if these positions are expressed in extreme form: rights absolutism and cultural relativity. If more sensibly spelled out--in the form of progressive realisation of rights and situational sensitivity of difference--there is no conflict at all. Indeed, these more reasonable positions are mutually supportive. I conclude that, given resource and other constraints, the realisation of human rights will always be a matter of political negotiation, and that a social commitment to equality demands that we ensure that only transparent, fully-informed and fully-participatory procedures, respectful of difference [are employed]. These principles should guide us when we have to make hard choices in the implementation of human rights.
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              Deficit of sensorimotor integration in normal aging.

              Sensorimotor performance declines with normal aging. The present study explored age-related changes in sensorimotor integration by conditioning a supra-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation pulse with a peripheral nerve shock at different interstimulus intervals. Cortical motor threshold of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, intracortical inhibition and facilitation were measured. We also assessed the influence of median nerve stimulation on motor cortex excitability at intervals which evoked short- and long-latency afferent inhibition (SAI and LAI, respectively) and afferent-induced facilitation (AIF). We observed a marked decrease of the long latency influence of proprioceptive inputs on M1 excitability in the elderly, with the loss of AIF and LAI. The SAI, motor thresholds and intracortical inhibition and facilitation were not age-related. Decreased sensorimotor performance with aging appears to be associated with a decrease in the influence of proprioceptive inputs on motor cortex excitability at longer intervals (probably via higher order cortical areas). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Conference
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central
                1471-2458
                2011
                31 May 2011
                : 11
                : Suppl 4
                : S3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]World Health Organization, Classifications, Terminology and Standards, Geneva, Switzerland
                Article
                1471-2458-11-S4-S3
                10.1186/1471-2458-11-S4-S3
                3104216
                21624189
                Copyright ©2011 Kostanjsek; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                What is disability? UN convention on the rights of persons with disability, eligibility criteria and the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health
                Rome, Italy
                19-20 April 2010
                Categories
                Proceedings

                Public health

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