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      Protective compromise of great omentum in an asymptomatic uterine rupture in a bitch: a case report Translated title: Empenho protetor do omento maior em uma rotura uterina asymptomatica numa cadela: um porte de caso Translated title: Compromiso protector del omento mayor en una ruptura uterina asintomática en una perra: reporte de un caso

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          Abstract

          The great omentum plays an important role in protecting the peritoneal cavity from bacteria and contaminating material and providing the peritoneum with leukocytes from the omental milky spots (OMS). However, there are no reports on the existence of OMS in dogs. In this report an unusual case of asymptomatic uterine rupture (UR) is described in a 16 month old pointer bitch that was admitted at the CES University Veterinary Clinic in Medellin (Colombia) for elective neutering. In the abdominal surgical plane, the great omentum was found sequestering abundant macerated fetal debris and uterine content released near the ruptured uterine wall. A severe congestive and brown-like appearance of peritoneum suggesting a protective inflammatory process was observed. All uterine contents, uterus and compromised great omentum were completely removed. The dog recovered satisfactorily with no clinical complications after a long term postsurgical period. Additionally we discuss the existence of OMS in the canine omentum.

          Translated abstract

          O Omento desempenha um papel importante na protecção da cavidade peritoneal contra infecções bacterianas y material contaminante fornecendo no peritónio dos leucócitos produzidos dos pontos leitoso do omento (OMS). No entanto, na literatura científica não relata sobre a existência do OMS em caninos. Este reporte de caso descreve um caso incomum de rotura uterina (UR) assintomática em uma cadela da raça Pointer de 16 meses de idade, que foi notificado ao Centro de Medicina Veterinária y Zootecnia da Universidad CES en Medellín (Colômbia) para ser submetida à ovariohisterectomia electiva. Assim que o avião cirurgia abdominal foi atingido, o omento maior foi encontrado cobrindo uma generosa quantidade de remanescentes da maceração fetal e outros conteúdos uterinos tinham sido liberados na cavidade peritoneal, perto do local da ruptura da parede uterina. O Omento demonstraou um grave congestionamento de cor marrão, sugerindo uma intensa reacção inflamatória. A totalidade do útero e conteúdo revertida para a cavidade foi retirada cirurgicamente, bem como o omento maior. A cadela recuperou-se satisfatoriamente, sem complicações clínicas após um longo período após a cirurgia. Na discussão é levantada na existência do OMS no omento canino.

          Translated abstract

          El omento mayor juega un papel importante en la protección de la cavidad peritoneal contra infecciones bacterianas y material contaminante proporcionando leucocitos al peritoneo producidos en los puntos lechosos del omento (OMS). Sin embargo, en la literatura científica no hay reportes sobre la existencia de los OMS en caninos. En este reporte es descrito un caso poco usual de ruptura uterina (UR) asintomática en una perra de la raza pointer de 16 meses de edad, que fue atendida en la consulta del Centro de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad CES en Medellín (Colombia) para ser sometida a ovariohisterectomía electiva. Una vez fue alcanzado el plano quirúrgico abdominal el omento mayor fue encontrado recubriendo una cantidad abundante de restos fetales macerados y otro contenido uterino que había sido liberado a la cavidad peritoneal cerca al sitio de ruptura de la pared uterina. El omento presentaba un aspecto de congestión severa de color parduzco, que sugería una reacción inflamatoria intensa. Todo el útero y el contenido revertido a la cavidad fueron removidos quirúrgicamente, como también el omento mayor. La perra se recuperó de manera satisfactoria sin complicaciones clínicas después de un largo periodo posterior a la cirugía. En la discusión es planteada la existencia de los OMS en el omento canino.

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          Most cited references35

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          Omental milky spots develop in the absence of lymphoid tissue-inducer cells and support B and T cell responses to peritoneal antigens.

          The omentum is a site of B1 cell lymphopoiesis and immune responsiveness to T cell-independent antigens. However, it is unknown whether it supports immune responses independently of conventional lymphoid organs. We showed that the omentum collected antigens and cells from the peritoneal cavity and supported T cell-dependent B cell responses, including isotype switching, somatic hypermutation, and limited affinity maturation, despite the lack of identifiable follicular dendritic cells. The omentum also supported CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to peritoneal antigens and recruited effector T cells primed in other locations. Unlike conventional lymphoid organs, milky spots in the omentum developed in the absence of lymphoid tissue-inducer cells, but required the chemokine CXCL13. Although the lymphoid architecture of milky spots was disrupted in lymphotoxin-deficient mice, normal architecture was restored by reconstitution with lymphotoxin-sufficient hematopoietic cells. These results indicate that the milky spots of the omentum function as unique secondary lymphoid organs that promote immunity to peritoneal antigens.
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            Differential molecular and anatomical basis for B cell migration into the peritoneal cavity and omental milky spots.

            The constitutive migration of B cells from the circulation into the peritoneal cavity and back is essential for peritoneal B cell homeostasis and function. However, the molecular machinery and the anatomical basis for these migratory processes have hardly been investigated. In this study, we analyze the role of integrins as well as the role of the omentum for B2 cell migration into and out of the peritoneal cavity of mice. We demonstrate that alpha(4)beta(7) integrin-mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 interaction enables B2 cell migration from the circulation into omental milky spots but not into the peritoneum. In contrast, alpha(4)beta(1) integrin mediates direct entry of B2 cells into the peritoneal cavity as well as their retention at that site, limiting B2 cell egress via the draining parathymic lymph nodes. Surgical removal of the omentum results in a 40% reduced immigration of B2 cells from the circulation into the peritoneum but does not impair B cell exit from this compartment. In conclusion, these data reveal the existence of alternative routes for B2 cell entry into the peritoneal cavity and identify integrins as key factors for peritoneal B2 cell homeostasis, mediating B2 cell migration into and out of the peritoneal cavity as well as their retention at this site.
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              Uterine rupture in a cat.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rccp
                Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias
                Rev Colom Cienc Pecua
                Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín )
                0120-0690
                September 2010
                : 23
                : 3
                : 369-376
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad CES Colombia
                [2 ] Universidad de Antioquia Colombia
                Article
                S0120-06902010000300012
                ddd1b7f8-6340-475a-8f19-a47dd4e8e5b4

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Colombia

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0120-0690&lng=en
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE

                Animal agriculture
                asymptomatic uterine rupture,canine epyplon,elective neutering,omento canino,omento maior,ovariohisterectomia electiva,rotura uterina asintomatica,epiplón canino,omento mayor,ovariohisterectomía electiva,ruptura uterina asintomática

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