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      MiR-22-3p Suppresses Vascular Remodeling and Oxidative Stress by Targeting CHD9 during the Development of Hypertension

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          Hypertension is considered a risk factor for a series of systematic diseases. Known factors including genetic predisposition, age, and diet habits are strongly associated with the initiation of hypertension. The current study aimed to investigate the role of miR-22-3p in hypertension. In this study, we discovered that the miR-22-3p level was significantly decreased in the thoracic aortic vascular tissues and aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Functionally, the overexpression of miR-22-3p facilitated the switch of ASMCs from the synthetic to contractile phenotype. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we predicted 11 potential target mRNAs for miR-22-3p. After screening, chromodomain helicase DNA-binding 9 (CHD9) was validated to bind with miR-22-3p. Rescue assays showed that the co-overexpression of miR-22-3p and CHD9 reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-22-3p mimics on cell proliferation, migration, and oxidative stress in ASMCs. Finally, miR-22-3p suppressed vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in vivo. Overall, miR-22-3p regulated ASMC phenotype switch by targeting CHD9. This new discovery provides a potential insight into hypertension treatment.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Status of Hypertension in China

          Although the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) continues to increase in developing countries, including China, recent data are lacking. A nationwide survey was conducted from October 2012 to December 2015 to assess the prevalence of HTN in China.
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            Is Open Access

            Vascular smooth muscle contraction in hypertension

            Abstract Hypertension is a major risk factor for many common chronic diseases, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, vascular dementia, and chronic kidney disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of hypertension include increased vascular resistance, determined in large part by reduced vascular diameter due to increased vascular contraction and arterial remodelling. These processes are regulated by complex-interacting systems such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, immune activation, and oxidative stress, which influence vascular smooth muscle function. Vascular smooth muscle cells are highly plastic and in pathological conditions undergo phenotypic changes from a contractile to a proliferative state. Vascular smooth muscle contraction is triggered by an increase in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), promoting actin–myosin cross-bridge formation. Growing evidence indicates that contraction is also regulated by calcium-independent mechanisms involving RhoA-Rho kinase, protein Kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling, reactive oxygen species, and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Activation of immune/inflammatory pathways and non-coding RNAs are also emerging as important regulators of vascular function. Vascular smooth muscle cell [Ca2+]i not only determines the contractile state but also influences activity of many calcium-dependent transcription factors and proteins thereby impacting the cellular phenotype and function. Perturbations in vascular smooth muscle cell signalling and altered function influence vascular reactivity and tone, important determinants of vascular resistance and blood pressure. Here, we discuss mechanisms regulating vascular reactivity and contraction in physiological and pathophysiological conditions and highlight some new advances in the field, focusing specifically on hypertension.
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              Long Noncoding RNA-GAS5: A Novel Regulator of Hypertension-Induced Vascular Remodeling.

              Vascular remodeling is an important pathological feature of hypertension, leading to increased vascular resistance and reduced compliance. Endothelial cell (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction is involved in vascular remodeling. Long noncoding RNAs are potential regulators of EC and VSMC function. Herein, we determined whether long noncoding RNA-growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) is involved in hypertension-related vascular remodeling. We revealed that GAS5 knockdown aggravated hypertension-induced microvascular dysfunction as shown by increased retinal neovascularization and capillary leakage. GAS5 regulated the remodeling of arteries, including caudal arteries, carotid arteries, renal arteries, and thoracic arteries. GAS5 was mainly expressed in ECs and VSMCs, and its expression was significantly downregulated in hypertension. GAS5 knockdown affected endothelial activation, endothelial proliferation, VSMC phenotypic conversion, and EC-VSMC communication in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, GAS5 regulated EC and VSMC function through β-catenin signaling. This study identified GAS5 as a critical regulator in hypertension and demonstrated the potential of gene therapy and drug development for treating hypertension.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                May 2021
                01 April 2021
                : 58
                : 3
                : 180-190
                aFirst Clinical Medical College, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China
                bDepartment of Endocrine, Suzhou Ninth People’s Hospital, Suzhou, China
                cDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China
                514311 J Vasc Res 2021;58:180–190
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Pages: 11
                Methods in Vascular Biology


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