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      Blood Pressure Control before and after Starting Dialysis

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          Background/Aim: We have previously reported a study on the adequacy of management of hypertension in patients developing end-stage renal failure (ESRF) over a period of 3 years from a single health district in the UK (n = 107). There were significant shortcomings in all aspects of management of hypertension including blood pressure (BP) control. Methods: In this report, we have compared BP control in the same cohort of patients before and after starting renal replacement therapy (RRT). Results: BP control improved significantly after the patients were established on dialysis (mean 158/ 87 mm Hg pre-RRT vs. 152/82 mm Hg post-RRT; p < 0.0001), and fewer antihypertensive agents were prescribed to control BP (mean 2.45 vs. 1.74) in this period (p < 0.0001). Moreover, patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (n = 50) had a better systolic BP control compared with the haemodialysis patients (n = 57; p = 0.03). Conclusions: This study shows significant improvement in BP control in a cohort of patients with ESRF following the start of dialysis.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Clinical Subtypes of Alzheimer’s Disease

           R.C. Petersen (1998)
          Alzheimer''s disease (AD) can present as a variety of clinical profiles. Although the most common presentation is that of a progressive amnestic disorder with subsequent involvement of other cognitive functions and personality alterations, there are numerous other clinical profiles. AD can present as a focal cortical degenerative syndrome with the clinical features dependent on the regions of the brain involved. Some of these syndromes include disturbances of language, visuospatial skills, attentional functions, executive processes and praxis. The neuropathological substrate of these disorders is variable and can include AD. Recently, the Lewy body variant of AD has been described. Finally, other modifying features that affect the progression of AD, such as extrapyramidal symptoms and myoclonus, are also discussed. Although the progressive amnestic form of AD is the most common presentation, other variations on the clinical syndrome can be important to identify because they may have implications for prognosis and treatment.
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            Hemodialysis-associated hypertension: pathophysiology and therapy.

            The majority of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are hypertensive. Hypertension in the hemodialysis patient population is multifactorial. Further, hypertension is associated with an increased risk for left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular complications, and mortality. Antihypertensive medications alone do not adequately control blood pressure (BP) in hemodialysis patients. There are, however, several therapeutic options available to normalize BP in these patients, often without the need for additional drug therapy (eg, long, slow hemodialysis; short, daily hemodialysis; nocturnal hemodialysis; or, most effectively, dietary salt and fluid restriction in combination with reduction of dialysate sodium concentration). Optimal BP in dialysis patients is not different from recommendations for the general population, even though definite evidence is not yet available. Predialysis systolic and diastolic BPs are of particular importance. Left ventricular mass correlates with predialysis systolic BP. Survival is better in hemodialysis patients with a mean arterial pressure below 99 mm Hg as compared with those with higher BP. Low predialysis systolic BP (<110 mm Hg) and low predialysis diastolic BP (<70 mm Hg) are associated with increased mortality, primarily because of severe congestive heart failure or coronary artery disease. Patients that experience repeated intradialytic hypotensive episodes should also be viewed with caution, and predialytic BP values should be reevaluated. A possible treatment option for these patients may be slow, long hemodialysis; short, daily hemodialysis; or nocturnal hemodialysis. Among the antihypertensive agents currently available, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors appear to have the greatest ability to reduce left ventricular mass. Pressure load can be satisfactorily determined by using the average value of predialysis BP measurements over 1 month. In selected hemodialysis patients, interdialytic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may help to determine if the patient is in fact hypertensive. In addition, ABPM provides important information about the change in BP between day and night. Regular home BP monitoring, yearly echocardiography, and treatment of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease are recommended. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
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              Hypertension in the hemodialysis population: a survey of 649 patients.

               Rany Salem (1995)
              Accurate information on prevalence and status of blood pressure control among US hemodialysis patients is lacking. We have surveyed the status of blood pressure control in 649 hemodialysis patients (89.8% black) from 10 dialysis units in Mississippi. Our results show a hypertension prevalence of 72% (hypertension defined as mean arterial pressure prior to dialysis session > or = 114 mm Hg). This mean arterial pressure did not differ among black patients compared with white patients (P = 0.51). The majority of hypertensive patients (80%) had elevation of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Isolated systolic hypertension was present in only 20% of hypertensive patients and was not different between black and white patients (P = 0.10). Three hundred eighty-one patients (58.7% of the total population and 81.5% of the hypertensive patients) were receiving antihypertensives. Age was the only significant factor that correlated with blood pressure: older patients (> 65 years) had lower blood pressure (P < 0.0001). Race, time on dialysis, etiology of end-stage renal disease, adequacy of dialysis, and several excess volume parameters had no influence on the blood pressure level. Treated hypertensive patients had a predialysis mean blood pressure only 3 mm Hg less than the untreated hypertensive patients. No differences were found among four classes of antihypertensives with regard to the degree of blood pressure control. Patients with hypertension requiring more than one antihypertensive did not achieve a lower blood pressure than the untreated patients. There was no correlation between use of antihypertensives and the magnitude of decrease in blood pressure after dialysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                March 2005
                20 January 2005
                : 99
                : 3
                : c86-c91
                Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham, UK
                83419 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;99:c86–c91
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 27, Pages: 1
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