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      The First World Congress on Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders: Controversies and Hot Topics in Etiology and Treatment

      1 , 2

      Frontiers in Neuroscience

      Frontiers Media S.A.

      Tourette, tics, deep brain stimulation, dopamine, GWAS

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The first World Congress on Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders was held in London, June 2016 by the Tourette Association of America, Tourettes Action (UK), and the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome. Presentations arising from large-scale collaborative projects were an important component of the scientific programme. This article focuses on areas raised in the hot topics session and two moderated debates, which covered emerging research in etiology and treatment. The hot topics ranged across genetics, arguably including the first confirmed Tourette Syndrome (TS) susceptibility gene NRXN1, neurocognition, and neurophysiology, including the possibility of a neurocognitive endophenotype for TS and the use of depth and cortical surface electrodes to investigate the neurophysiology of tics on the background of the evolving field of deep brain stimulation (DBS), to novel treatment approaches such as dental orthotics and an online behavioral intervention. The debates aired controversies in treatment; pharmacotherapy vs. behavioral treatment and the place of medical cannabinoids. These sessions demonstrate the vibrancy of a field that has considerably expanded in the last decade, the significant progress that has been made, and the direction that some of the most fruitful next phases of research will take.

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          Most cited references 29

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          ALSPAC--the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. I. Study methodology.

           J. Golding,  T. J. Jones,   (2000)
          ALSPAC (The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, formerly the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood) was specifically designed to determine ways in which the individual's genotype combines with environmental pressures to influence health and development. To date, there are comprehensive data on approximately 10,000 children and their parents, from early pregnancy until the children are aged between 8 and 9. The study aims to continue to collect detailed data on the children as they go through puberty noting, in particular, changes in anthropometry, attitudes and behaviour, fitness and other cardiovascular risk factors, bone mineralisation, allergic symptoms and mental health. The study started early during pregnancy and collected very detailed data from the mother and her partner before the child was born. This not only provided accurate data on concurrent features, especially medication, symptoms, diet and lifestyle, attitudes and behaviour, social and environmental features, but was unbiased by parental knowledge of any problems that the child might develop. From the time of the child's birth many different aspects of the child's environment have been monitored and a wide range of phenotypic data collected. By virtue of being based in one geographic area, linkage to medical and educational records is relatively simple, and hands-on assessments of children and parents using local facilities has the advantage of high quality control. The comprehensiveness of the ALSPAC approach with a total population sample unselected by disease status, and the availability of parental genotypes, provides an adequate sample for statistical analysis and for avoiding spurious results. The study has an open policy in regard to collaboration within strict confidentiality rules.
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            Obsessive-compulsive disorder: an integrative genetic and neurobiological perspective.

            Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviours that are experienced as unwanted. Family and twin studies have demonstrated that OCD is a multifactorial familial condition that involves both polygenic and environmental risk factors. Neuroimaging studies have implicated the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit in the pathophysiology of the disorder, which is supported by the observation of specific neuropsychological impairments in patients with OCD, mainly in executive functions. Genetic studies indicate that genes affecting the serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems, and the interaction between them, play a crucial part in the functioning of this circuit. Environmental factors such as adverse perinatal events, psychological trauma and neurological trauma may modify the expression of risk genes and, hence, trigger the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive behaviours.
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              European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part II: pharmacological treatment

              To develop a European guideline on pharmacologic treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS) the available literature was thoroughly screened and extensively discussed by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette syndrome (ESSTS). Although there are many more studies on pharmacotherapy of TS than on behavioral treatment options, only a limited number of studies meets rigorous quality criteria. Therefore, we have devised a two-stage approach. First, we present the highest level of evidence by reporting the findings of existing Cochrane reviews in this field. Subsequently, we provide the first comprehensive overview of all reports on pharmacological treatment options for TS through a MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE search for all studies that document the effect of pharmacological treatment of TS and other tic disorders between 1970 and November 2010. We present a summary of the current consensus on pharmacological treatment options for TS in Europe to guide the clinician in daily practice. This summary is, however, rather a status quo of a clinically helpful but merely low evidence guideline, mainly driven by expert experience and opinion, since rigorous experimental studies are scarce.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Neurosci
                Front Neurosci
                Front. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1662-4548
                1662-453X
                07 June 2016
                2016
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA
                2Department of Neurology, St George's University of London London, UK
                Author notes

                Edited by: Peristera Paschou, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece

                Reviewed by: Natalie J. Forde, University Medical Center Groningen, Netherlands; Luca Pagliaroli, Semmelweis University, Hungary; Renata Rizzo, Catania University, Italy

                *Correspondence: Jeremy S. Stern jestern@ 123456sgul.ac.uk

                This article was submitted to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience

                10.3389/fnins.2016.00246
                4894886
                27375411
                Copyright © 2016 Mathews and Stern.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 5, Words: 4615
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health 10.13039/100000025
                Award ID: R01 MH096767
                Categories
                Psychiatry
                Perspective

                Neurosciences

                tourette, gwas, dopamine, deep brain stimulation, tics

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